Arabic course : you can learn to read and write arabic..

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  1. Abu Sarah
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    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]



    [
    Lesson 1



    Letters in this lesson: ( letters 1 - 3 of a total of 28 )​


    :Alif [​IMG] A as in Bad[ â ]
    Bâ`[​IMG] B as in Back[ b ]
    Tâ`[​IMG] T as in Take[ t ]


    There are four shapes of every letter in the arabic alphabet. The different shapes for a letter are used according to which position it has got in a word.
    All these shapes have to be memorized in order to be able to write arabic! Practice by writing the different shapes on paper.
    [​IMG]

    (Alif)
    [​IMG]

    (Bâ`)

    [​IMG]


    (Tâ`)


    Example:
    [​IMG]
    Here we have three letters. In the arabic language we read from right to left, and we see that the first letter has a dot below the line, which could be a good way to recognize Bâ'.
    Do you see how the shapes of the letters are changing in accordance with their positions in the word (in the picture)?
    You will later learn how to write faster and faster, and I'm sure that you'll soon be able to write right on the paper without hassle! Memorize the shapes for Bâ' and Tâ' before we continue.
    [​IMG]
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    Lesson 2

    Letters in this lesson: ( letters 4 - 7 of a total of 28 )

    Thâ`[​IMG]Th as in Thanks[ th ]

    Jeem[​IMG]J as in Jack[ j ]


    Hâ`[​IMG]A hissing sound resembling h, pronounced by partly stopping the airflow at the mid-part of the throat (at the level of a mans adams apple)[ h ]

    Khâ`[​IMG]Fizzing sound, uttered by the root of the tounge touching the upper part of the throat[ kh ]


    The shapes of these letters:


    [​IMG]
    (Thâ`)


    [​IMG]

    (Jeem)




    [​IMG]

    (Hâ`)

    [​IMG]


    (Khâ`)


    Example:

    [​IMG]

    The shapes of the letters are changing in accordance to their position, and becomes a word that if you would try to write it you'd hardly need to lift your pen off the paper. This is arabic writing!
    Are you recognizing the letters of the word, without being able to pronounce it (the word)? Don't feel left out!
    As a matter of fact, there is too little information given in order to pronounce the word, and there is no way to pronounce a word consisting of three consonants and no vowels.


    Tashkeel & Harakât

    There is a system of small letters called Tashkeel (ar. "explanation through specification"), that implements the use of short vowels and acoustic changes between the so-called "bigger letters" without the need for the bigger letters to change shape.

    Dammah[​IMG]O as in Book[ u ]

    Fathah[​IMG]A as in Snack[ a ]

    Kasrah[​IMG]I as in Kin[ i ]

    Sukoon[​IMG]The Sukoon shows that there isn't any sound for this letter.[ ]


    Example:
    [​IMG]
    [ ji ] - [ ja ] -[ ju ]

    A single letter from the tashkeel system is called a Harakah (arabic for "movement", or "motion"), the plural form is Harakât.
    So the sound of a letter changes in correspondance to which Harakâh is found on it. Every letter has a Harakah, even if it isn't written. If a letter has Sukoon then it is usually not written at all.

    Example:
    [​IMG]

    [ bahatha ]

    "He searched"

    [​IMG]
    [ buhitha ]


    "A search took place"Tashkeel has a great influence on the meaning of words, only one Harakah can change the whole meaning of a sentence!
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    Lesson 3

    Letters in this lesson: ( letters 8 - 11 of a total of 28 ):

    Dâl [​IMG]D as in Day[ d ]

    Dhâl [​IMG]Th as in The[ dh ]

    ` [​IMG] Stiffer form than R in Route[ r ]

    Zây [​IMG] Z as in Oz[ z ]


    The shapes of these letters:

    [​IMG]

    (Dâl)

    [​IMG]

    (Dhâl)


    [​IMG]


    (Râ`)

    [​IMG]


    (Zây)


    These letters are 4 out of 6 who are a part of the group of non-connectors. Alif is one of these letters, and this is why we have not been using it until now!

    These 6 non-connectors have no medial or initial shape, and have these simple rules:
    • Everytime they would take their initial shape they take their independent one.
    • Everytime they would take their medial shape they instead take their final shape.
    • The following letter always takes initial shape if it isn't the last letter of a word, because then it takes independent.
    Example:

    [​IMG]

    [ hadatha ]

    "To be new", "recent" or "novel"


    [​IMG]
    [ tâba ]

    "He turned", "He repented"

    [​IMG]
    [ dhabaha ]

    "He slaughtered"
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    Lesson 4

    Letters in this lesson: ( letters 12 - 17 of a total of 28 ):

    Seen [​IMG]S as in Say[ s ]

    Sheen [​IMG] Sh as in Shine[ sh ]

    Sâd [​IMG] Neighbour of Seen[ s ]

    Dâd [​IMG] Neighbour of Dâl (as in lesson 3)[ d ]

    Tâ`[​IMG] Neighbour of Tâ` (as in lesson 1)[ t ]

    Zâ`[​IMG] Neighbour of Dhâl (as in lesson 3)[ z

    Attention! Zâ`[​IMG]is not the neighbour of Zây[​IMG].



    This is a common mistake.The shapes of these letters:

    [​IMG]


    (Seen)


    [​IMG]


    (Sheen)


    [​IMG]



    (Sâd)


    [​IMG]


    (Dâd)



    [​IMG]


    (Tâ`)



    [​IMG]


    (Zâ`)




    The four thickies;

    Sâd [​IMG] - Dâd [​IMG] - Tâ`[​IMG] - Zâ`[​IMG]



    These are letters which sound like thick versions of their neighbours (as for neighbours, see top of page), that is, that the tounge is supposed to thicken the sound of the letter.
    The sound changes for Alif or Yâ' (Yâ' is a letter that we haven't yet gone through) when they follow one of the four thickies. The sound does not change for Wâw, however.


    Example: (listen carefully and repeat afterwards)

    [​IMG]


    [ Sâl ] - [ Sâl ]


    [​IMG]

    [ Seen ] - [ Seen ]


    [​IMG]


    [ Sool ] - [ Sool ]



    [​IMG]


    [ Dâr ] - [ Dâr ]


    [​IMG]


    [ Deek ] - [ Deek ]


    [​IMG]


    [ Dook ] - [ Dook ]


    [​IMG]


    [ Tâ'irah ] - [ Tâ'irah ]


    [​IMG]


    [ Teeb ] - [ Teeb ]


    [​IMG]


    [ Toob ] - [ Toob ]


    [​IMG]


    [ Dhâlim ] - [ Zâlim ]


    [​IMG]


    [ Dheem ] - [ Zeem ]


    [​IMG]


    [ Dhoom ] - [ Zoom ]

    Take note that Wâw (the "oo" sound) does not differ in pronunciation in the last two words in every group.
    Listen and repeat! Try to get the deep sound of Alif and Yâ' that comes from the back of the throat, when they are preceded by one of the four thickies.
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    Lesson 5

    Letters in this lesson: ( letters 18 - 21 of a total of 28 )


    ´Ayn [​IMG]Sound made by bringing tension to the mid-part of the throat (same place of the throat as Hâ')[ ´ ]

    Ghayn [​IMG]Sound made by touching the tounge lightly on the same place that you touch when making the sound for Khâ' (the uppermost part of the throat)[ gh ]

    `[​IMG] F as in Fairy[ f ]
    Qâf [​IMG] A "clucking" sound made by the root of the tounge stopping the airflow at the inner-most part of the mouth, which is behind the part where Kâf is uttered[ q ]

    The shapes of these letters:

    [​IMG]


    (´Ayn)


    [​IMG]


    (Ghayn)



    [​IMG]


    (Fâ`)



    [​IMG]


    (Qâf)

    Listen to `Ayn:

    [​IMG]


    [ ´oo ]-[ ´ee ]- [ ´â ]




    Listen and repeat! Take note of the tension of the backside of the throat when the sound of `Ayn comes.



    Listen to Ghayn:


    [​IMG]


    [ ghoo ]-[ ghee ]- [ ghâ ]





    Listen to Qâf:

    [​IMG]


    [ qoo ]-[ qee ]-[ qâ ]





    Take note that Alif sounds different when preceded by Ghayn or Qâf.
    • This change happens when Alif is preceded by a total of seven letters; Râ', Sâd. Dâd, Tâ', Zâ', Ghayn and Qâf.
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    Lesson 6

    Letters in this lesson: ( letters 22 - 25 of a total of 28 )


    Icon:Audio:Explanation:Transliteration:

    Kâf [​IMG] K as in Kate[ k ]

    Lâm [​IMG] L as in Lamb, only not as soft[ l ]

    Meem [​IMG] M as in Moon[ m ]


    Noon [​IMG] N as in Nose[ n ]



    The shapes of these letters:


    [​IMG]



    (Kâf)


    [​IMG]


    (Lâm)



    [​IMG]


    (Meem)


    [​IMG]

    (Noon)



    Lâm-Alif: The ligature

    When Alif is preceded by Lâm, they form a so-called "ligature". A ligature is two or more letters forming a special shape due to their order of appearance. This ligature is called "Lâm-Alif", and looks as if Alif would be written inside Lâm. There is no difference in pronunciation, and Alif is still functioning as a non-connector.
    [​IMG]


    (Lâm-Alif)


    Examples:
    [​IMG]


    [ salâm ]
    "Peace"

    [​IMG]


    [ lâ ]
    "No"
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    Lesson 7

    Letters in this lesson: ( letters 26 - 28 of a total of 28 )

    Icon:Audio:Explanation:Transliteration:

    Hâ`[​IMG] H as in Hay[ h ]

    Yâ`[​IMG] Y as in Yellow or ee as in Feeling[ y ] or [ ee ]

    Wâw[​IMG] W as in Wow! or u as in Luke[ w ] or [ oo ]



    The shapes of these letters:

    [​IMG]


    (Hâ`)


    [​IMG]


    (Yâ`)



    [​IMG]



    (Wâw)



    Yâ' and Wâw functions both as consonant and vowel, depending on their tashkeel, and also the tashkeel of the preceding letter.
    Yâ' and Wâw are always pronounced as consonants except in one case (that is; one case for each letter) in which they are pronounced as vowels:
    • If Yâ' has Sukoon and is preceded by a letter that has Kasrah, then it is read long: [ ee ]
    • [​IMG]
    • [ deen ]
      "Religion"
    • If Wâw has Sukoon and is preceded by a letter that has Dammah, it is read long: [ oo ].

    • [​IMG]
    [ joo` ]
    "Hunger"



    Note: These two "Sukoons" are usually not written in normal writing.
    Otherwise they are pronounced as a consonant. Here are some examples:


    [​IMG]


    [ sayf ]
    "Sword"


    [​IMG]


    [ bayân ]
    "Explanation"



    [​IMG]


    [ khawf ]
    "Fear"



    [​IMG]


    [ jawâb ]
    "Answer
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    Lesson 8

    Alif with Hamzah

    When Alif is in the beginning of a word it is almost always carrying a Hamzah, which means it is pronounced not as Alif, but as a full total stop of air followed by the Hamzahs Harakah.

    Example: Alif without any Hamzah preceded by a Fathah:
    Examples on how Hamzah is pronounced:


    [​IMG]

    [ i ]-[ a ]-[ u ]


    Hamzah is not necessarily carried by an Alif! It could be found on (from the right): Alif, Alone (independent Hamzah is larger), Yâ' and Wâw. The pronunciation is however the same.



    [​IMG]



    Some examples on Hamzah when used in words:




    [​IMG]

    [ akhadha ]
    "He took"



    [​IMG]

    [ adhhabu ]
    "I am going"



    [​IMG]

    [ ukhriju ]
    "I am taking out"



    [​IMG]

    [ sa'ala ]
    "He asked"



    [​IMG]

    [ qara'a ]
    "He read"



    [​IMG]

    [ yas'alu ]
    "He is asking"



    [​IMG]

    [ yaqra'u ]
    "He is reading"





    Tashkeel and Harakât: level 2


    Shaddah shows that the letter is a double-consonant. A word that originally looks like this:



    [​IMG]

    [ dhah-haba ]



    Could then be written as following:

    [​IMG]

    [ dhah-haba ]
    "he made (something) go"



    Also notice the influence shaddah has on the meaning of words when reading the same word save shaddah:


    [​IMG]

    [ dhahaba ]
    "he went"



    Tanween

    Sometimes two instances of either Dammah, Fathah or Kasrah are found on the same letter in the end of a word. These "double-Harakât" are collectively called Tanween. Here are the three different forms of Tanween:​
    • Dammatân (means two Dammahs):
    [​IMG]

    [ kitâbun ]
    "Book", nominative form
    • Fathatân (means two Fathah):
    [​IMG]


    [ kitâban ]

    "Book", accusative form


    • Kasratân (means two Kasrahs):




    [​IMG]



    [ kitâbin ]

    "Book", genitive form




    Did you see that an Alif has been added to [ kitâban ] ? If the Fathatân are not pronounced for (below mentioned) reasons, only the Alif is pronounced: [ kitâbâ ]


    Important rule in reading Arabic

    The Harakah of the last letter of your reading or of a sentence should not be pronounced unless its clarification is needed. Generally it's not though.
    One should however not be under the impression that there never is a last Harakah, or that the last Harakah always is Sukoon. This is incorrect.


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    Lesson 9

    In this lesson we will learn three letters that are not a part of the regular alphabet:

    Icon:Audio:Explanation:Transliteration:

    Tâ` Marbootah [​IMG] Tâ' or Hâ'[ at ] eller [ ah ]

    Alif Maqsoorah [​IMG] Exactly like Alif[ â ]

    Hamzatul-Wasl [​IMG] Literally "Hamzah for Joining". Explanation below!


    The shapes of these letters:


    [​IMG]


    (Tâ' Marbootah)


    [​IMG]

    (Alif Maqsoorah)



    Tâ' Marbootah

    "Tied Tâ'" - This letter exists only as the last letter of a word. This letter is pronounced as Hâ' [​IMG] when its Harakah isn't pronounced (as in the end of a sentence for example). And it is pronounced as Tâ' [​IMG] when its Harakah is pronounced.



    [​IMG]



    [ hamzah ]
    Is the letter that we learned in lesson 8



    Alif Maqsoorah

    This letter is pronounced exactly like Alif. This letter exists only as the last letter of a word.


    [​IMG]


    [ ´alâ ]
    "Over", "On top of"



    [​IMG]


    [ moosâ ]
    Moses the prophet


    [​IMG]



    [ ´asâ ]
    "He disobeyed"


    [​IMG]


    [ ´asâ ]
    "Cane", "Walking stick"


    NoticeThe last two words have the exact same pronunciation but with different spelling, and thus different meaning.



    Alif with Hamzatul-Wasl

    Hamzatul-Wasl is used very often in the arabic language, not to mention when the definite article is attached to nouns. To attach the definite article to nouns we put Alif with Hamzatul-Wasl and Lâm with Sukoon before the word (not separating them with spaces).
    Hamzatul-Wasl has five basic rules:
    If Hamzatul-Wasl is not preceded by a Harakah (in other words: in the beginning of your reading), it is pronounced as ordinary Hamzah with Fathah (unless another Harakah is specified)


    [​IMG]


    [ bayt ]
    "Home"



    [​IMG]


    [ al-bayt ]
    "The home"

    If there is a Harakah preceding Hamzatul-Wasl, then that preceding Harakah is pronounced while Hamzatul-Wasl is not pronounced.


    [​IMG]



    [ ameer ]
    "Commanderer", "Orderer"



    [​IMG]



    [ ameerul-bayt ]
    "The head of the family", literally "The commander of the house"



    [​IMG]



    [ hamzatul-wasl ]



    [​IMG]



    [ yâ ameeral-bayt ]
    "O head of the family!"


    [​IMG]



    [ min ameeril-bayt ]
    "From the head of the family"


    - If Hamzatul-Wasl is preceded by an Alif (with Sukoon) and Fathah preceding the Alif, only Fathah is pronounced.

    [​IMG]

    [ ´alad-deen ]

    "Aladdin" from 1000 and one night, literally meaning "On the religion", eg. religious
    Why isn't Lâm in Ad-Deen being pronounced? We'll explain this further in Lesson 10!
    - If Hamzatul-Wasl is preceded by a Yâ' (with Sukoon) and Kasrah preceding the Yâ', only Kasrah is pronounced.


    [​IMG]


    [ fil-bayt ]
    "At home"



    - If Hamzatul-Wasl is preceded by a Wâw (with Sukoon) and Dammah preceding the Wâw, only Dammah is pronounced.

    [​IMG]

    [ abul-hârith ]
    "Lion", literally "The ploughmans father"
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    Lesson 10


    As we mentioned earlier, when a word is turned into definite form in arabic, we may add Alif with Hamzatul-Wasl and Lâm with Sukoon preceding the word without separation of spaces.

    [​IMG]


    [ bayt ] - [ al-bayt ]
    "Home" - "The home"


    Alif and Lâm is in this sense called "Alif and Lâm to make definite". Sometimes this particular Lâm is not pronounced even though it is written, and the letter succeeding it will be pronounced with Shaddah.
    Example:


    [​IMG]
    [ rasool ] - [ ar-rasool ]


    "Messenger" - "The Messenger"It is the letter Râ' that initiates the behaviour of pronouncing the word in this way. The arabic alphabet is divided into two equally large groups of letters; one that initiates this behaviour and one that doesn't.

    The names of these two groups are as follows:


    [​IMG]

    [ al-hurooful-qamariyyah ]
    "The Moon Letters"


    [​IMG]

    [ al-huroofush-shamsiyyah ]
    "The Sun Letters"


    So the alphabet is consisting of 28 letters, of which 14 are members of the Moon Letters and 14 of them are members of the Sun Letters.


    [​IMG]

    [ al-huroof al-qamariyyah ]

    Alif[​IMG]

    Bâ`[​IMG]

    Jeem[​IMG]

    Hâ`[​IMG]

    Khâ`[​IMG]

    `Ayn[​IMG]

    Ghayn[​IMG]

    Fâ`[​IMG]

    Qâf[​IMG]

    Kâf[​IMG]

    Meem[​IMG]

    Hâ`[​IMG]

    Yâ`[​IMG]

    Wâw[​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    [ al-huroof ash-shamsiyyah ]


    [​IMG]Tâ`

    [​IMG]Thâ`

    [​IMG]Dâl

    [​IMG]Dhâl

    [​IMG]Râ`

    [​IMG]Zây

    [​IMG]Seen

    [​IMG]Sheen

    [​IMG]Sâd

    [​IMG]Dâd

    [​IMG]Tâ`

    [​IMG]Zâ`

    [​IMG]Lâm

    [​IMG]Noon



    As you listen to the word [ al-qamar ] "The Moon" you will notice that Qâf does not make Lâm disappear in pronunciation. And Qâf is a member of the Moon Letters, so this is a good way to know that the "Moon Letters" is the group that doesn't make Lâm disappear in pronunciation.


    And as you listen to the word [ ash-shams ], "The Sun" you will notice that Sheen makes Lâm disappear in pronunciation. And Sheen is a member of the Sun Letters, so this is a good way to know that the "Sun Letters" is the group that does make Lâm disappear in pronunciation.
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    Arabic Grammar

    Precourse

    This precourse exists to make it easier to understand the following lessons.

    The letters have 4 different states

    A letter in arabic writing always has one of four harakât;
    1. Dammah
    2. Fathah
    3. Kasrah
    4. Sukoon
    When a letter has one of these harakât it takes a name specific to that harakah:

    dammah madmoom

    fathah maftooh

    kasrah maksoor

    sukoon sâkin


    [​IMG]


    Wâw with a fathah is therefore called "wâw maftooh".


    The basic elements of arabic

    The arabic language consists of three basic elements;
    1. Particles (ar. [​IMG] harf, pl. [​IMG] huroof)
    2. Verbs (ar. [​IMG] fi´l, pl. [​IMG] af´âl)
    3. Nouns (as defined in arabic) are: All words save particles and verbs. (ar. [​IMG] ism, pl. [​IMG] asmâ')
    These elements are not necessarily separated by spaces.
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    The indefinite noun

    To say "A book" in arabic
    (eg. an unknown book—we don't know what book)
    only one word is necessary:




    [​IMG]

    [ kitâb ]
    "A book"


    It is the tanween (double-harakât) in the end of the word that indicates that this book is unknown, eg. that the noun is indefinite.
    Specifications for the definition of nouns
    • The tanween of a noun indicates that the noun is indefinite.
    • Names (Proper names) as Fredric or Muhammad are always definite regardless of tanween.
    • Singular as well as plural nouns may carry the tanween.
    • The basic rule is that every noun has dammah as its last harakah.

    Examples:


    [​IMG]


    [ rukn ]
    "A pillar"

    [​IMG]

    [ arkân ]
    "(Several) pillars"
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    Alif Lâm at-Ta`reef

    In order to make a noun definite in arabic, we use a particle called "alif lâm for definition" which we will learn about now.

    The specifications for this particle

    The particle consists of Alif (with hamzah al-wasl) and lâm (sâkin).

    [​IMG]
    • The particle is inserted right before the noun which you want to make definite.​
    • If the last letter of the noun has tanween then only one of the two harakât remains.​
    Example:


    [​IMG]

    "A house/home" – "The house/home"

    Remember....that here is where we implement the use of the "Sun Letters"—refer to lesson 10 for rehearsal.


    Example:


    [​IMG]

    "A messenger" – "The messenger"
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    Ism Al-Ishârah


    Vocabulary

    [​IMG] hâdhâ "This"

    [​IMG] dhâlika "That"



    [​IMG] Ism Al-Ishârah means a demonstrative
    (lit. "pointing") pronoun, and is used (as the name suggests)
    for pointing out at nouns.


    [​IMG] dhâ is actually pronounced as [​IMG] ,
    but the alif after [​IMG] is omitted in writing.


    The same goes for [​IMG] as it is actually pronounced [​IMG] .


    If you are writing all the harakât of the word then it is fitting that you write a small alif instead of fathah.

    Example: [​IMG] and [​IMG].
    This small alif is called "dagger-alif": [​IMG]


    Examples:


    [​IMG]


    [ hâdhâ bayt ]
    "This is a house/home"


    [​IMG]


    [ dhâlika qalam ]
    "That is a pen"

    Specifications for [​IMG]
    • Every [​IMG] has a field of use, and the noun which is being pointed out at has to be in accordance to the field of use of the word you are using to point out with.
    • You should learn the fields of use for the [​IMG] asmâ' al-ishârah (pl. of ism al-ishârah) appearing in this lesson. Preferrably in arabic but otherwise in english.
    Field of use [​IMG]

    Near + Singular + Masculine + Animate + Non-Animate.
    [​IMG]



    Field of use [​IMG]

    Far + Singular + Masculine + Animate + Non-Animate.
    [​IMG]It would be correct to use [​IMG] for a book lying near me (because it is near, singular, masculine (yes, masculine!) and non-animate).
    The same goes for a boy standing near to me (he would then be near, singular, masculine and animate).




    But it would not be correct to use [​IMG] because it is used for pointing out at nouns that are far away.



    Regarding the definition of [​IMG] animate beings

    The things which are animate (as far as arabic is concerned) are human and genies (jinn).
    Genies are invisible spirits that live amongst us and who are quite unlike ourselves.
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    Harf Wâw Lil-`Atf

    To say "and" we use the "conjunction particle" called [​IMG] harf wâw lil-`atf.



    Specifications for harf wâw lil-`atf

    The particle consists of one letter, wâw maftûh.

    [​IMG]
    • The particle is inserted directly before the word (without separating the two with spaces), and it precedes every other particle that could precede the word.

    Example:


    [​IMG]

    "This is a house/home and that is a pen"


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    Interrogative sentences

    In order to make a demonstrative sentence into an interrogative sentence, eg. In order to make the sentence [​IMG] "This is a book" into "Is this a book?" we have two possibilities.

    We could make use of [​IMG] (hamzah maftooh upon alif):
    [​IMG]

    [ ahâdhâ kitâb? ]
    "Is this a book?"
    And we could use [​IMG] :
    [​IMG]

    [ hal hâdhâ kitâb? ]
    "Is this a book?"
    The two sentences form the same meaning, but [​IMG] is a [​IMG] particle and [​IMG] is a [​IMG] noun.
    Specifications for [​IMG]
    [​IMG] Is inserted at the beginning of the word we want to interrogate about, without being separated by spaces.


    [​IMG] is in arabic called [​IMG] "interrogative particle".


    We could change what we are interrogating about in the sentence by moving the [​IMG] to another word:
    Example:

    [​IMG]

    [ alaka hâdhâ? ]
    "Is this yours?"


    [​IMG]

    [ ahâdhâ lak? ]
    "Is it this, that is yours?"


    Specifications for [​IMG]:
    [​IMG] is positioned at the beginning of the sentence regardless.

    [​IMG] is separated by spaces.

    [​IMG] is called [​IMG] "Interrogative noun".


    There is no way to change the interrogated noun, because the sentence in itself is being interrogated about.

    If [​IMG] precedes hamzah al-wasl
    then the lâm in [​IMG] becomes maksoor: [​IMG]

    1. [​IMG]
      [ halish-shâyu jâhiz? ]
      "Is the tea ready?"

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    Harf Jarr & Ism Majroor

    [​IMG] Huroof jarr are particles describing where an object is located, amongst other things.


    The first [​IMG] that we're going to learn is [​IMG] which means "in", "within".



    Example:



    [​IMG]


    "Within a book"


    [​IMG]

    "Within the book"


    Some of the [​IMG]


    Word==Pronunciation==Meaning

    [​IMG]==fee=="In", "Within"

    [​IMG]`==alâ=="On top of", "Above"

    [​IMG]==ilâ=="To"

    [​IMG]==min=="From"

    [​IMG]==ma`== a"With"


    Specifications for [​IMG]

    The particle is called "harf jarr" and the affected word is called "ism majroor".



    [​IMG]


    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]


    The last letter of [​IMG] ism majroor becomes [​IMG] maksoor (it takes kasrah).
    If the particle [​IMG] precedes hamzah al-wasl then noon in [​IMG] becomes maftooh: [​IMG]



    Example:

    [​IMG]
    "He is from the river"
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    Damâ'ir ar-Raf`


    Vocabulary:


    [​IMG] "Pocket"

    [​IMG] "Here"

    [​IMG] "Watch", or "Hour"



    [​IMG] (pl. [​IMG] damâ'ir) Dameer means pronoun (like "He", "She" and "It").


    Damâ'ir may be used as pointers to animate and non-animate nouns. You may therefor use "He" and "This" on the same object, but you have to differentiate between "He" and "She".


    Some of the damâ'ir ar-raf`

    [​IMG] Me

    [​IMG] You (Pointing to a masculine noun)

    [​IMG] You (Pointing to a feminine noun)

    [​IMG] He

    [​IMG] She


    Examples:

    [​IMG]

    "Where is the book?"

    [​IMG]

    "It is in the pocket."


    [​IMG]

    "And where are you?"


    [​IMG]


    "I am here, in the house (or at home).


    "How do we know the sex of nouns?

    Most often we find that feminine words are ending with [​IMG] tâ' marbootah, and we point to them using [​IMG] amongst others.


    Example:

    [​IMG]


    "Where is the watch?"


    [​IMG]

    "It is in the pocket.


    "Specifications for the damâ'ir appearing in this lesson
    1. They may be used for pointing to both animate and inanimate nouns.
    2. Kasrah in [​IMG] is always pronounced, even if the word appears as last in a sentence.
      [​IMG]
      [ ayna anti? ]
      "Where are you (pointing to a feminine noun)?"
    3. [​IMG] lacks of sex and may be used for both.
    4. [​IMG] Tâ' marbootah is a hint that the word is feminine.
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    Mubtada' & Khabar


    Dictionary:


    [​IMG] "Man"

    [​IMG] "Beautiful"


    [​IMG]

    "The man is beautiful"


    A closer look at the sentence:The starting point of the sentence is "The man", and the information that is being given is that he is "Beautiful".
    "Starting point" in arabic is called [​IMG] mubtada'
    and "information" is called [​IMG] khabar.

    Thus we say:

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]
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    Ism Al-Istifhâm

    [​IMG] Ism al-Istifhâm is in english called "interrogative noun".




    A few examples of Asmâ' Al-Istifhâm


    Dictionary:

    [​IMG] "How?"

    [​IMG] "What?"

    [​IMG]"Where?"


    Let us look at an example of a demonstrative sentence:

    [​IMG]

    "The situation is good."

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]



    This sentence would be an answer to the question: "How is the situation?". [​IMG] "How?" would then be replacing [​IMG] "Good.".



    [​IMG]


    "How is the situation?"[​IMG] is [​IMG] in both of the preceding

    sentences, and the [​IMG] is [​IMG]
    and [​IMG].Specifications for [​IMG]

    1. If [​IMG] is an [​IMG] then [​IMG] will precede [​IMG].
    2. [​IMG] is then called [​IMG] khabar muqaddam "preeceding information"
    3. [​IMG] is then called [​IMG] mubtada' mu'akh-khar "succeeding starting point".
    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

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