Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal

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    Hassan Ahmad
    Al-Jumu'ah Magazine Volume 12 - Issue 3 – Rabi’ul Al-Awwal 1421 H

    Abu Abdullah, Ahmad ibn Hanbal ash-Shaibani, was born in the city of Baghdad in the year 780 CE (164 AH). He studied various subjects in his hometown and traveled extensively in quest of knowledge.

    In his great book, ‘Siyar A’lam an-Nubala’, Imam ath-Dhahabi described Ibn Hanbal as, “The true Shaikh of Islam and leader of the Muslims in his time, the hadith master and proof of the religion”.

    He was chiefly interested in acquiring knowledge of Ahadeeth and traveled extensively through Iraq, Syria, Arabia and other places in the Middle East studying religion and collecting the ahadeeth of Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam. His travels occupied several years of his early life.

    After returning home, he became a student of Imam Shafi’ee who taught him the subject of Islamic Fiqh and its fundamentals. This and the fact that he was a scholar of hadith, were responsible for his deep devotion to the textual views on Islam, and his opposition to innovation of any kind.

    The strength of his faith in Allah and the steadfastness on his understanding of the Deen were tested when under Khalifah al-Mamum and the Khalifah al-Mu’tasim, a Fitnah or a kind of ‘inquisition court’ was created to deal with people among whom were many acknowledged scholars who would not profess the doctrine of “the creation of the Qur’an”. Imam ibn Hanbal too, suffered as a result when he was arrested and brought in chains before the court. But he patiently submitted to corporal punishment and imprisonment and resolutely refused to deviate from his beliefs.

    His trial, and the Ummah’s for that matter, were to come to an end on the hands of the Khalifah al-Mutawakkil who did not believe in the doctrine of ‘the creation of the Qur’an’. From then onwards the Imam was accorded honour befitting his greatness. His steadfastness helped preserve the correct Islamic belief regarding the Book of Allah. His fame spread far and wide. His learning, piety and unswerving faithfulness to traditions gathered the Ummah and its scholars around his understanding and teachings. He died in Baghdad in the year 855 CE (241 AH).

    Among the works of Imam ibn Hanbal is the great encyclopedia of ahadeeth called al-Musnad, compiled during his life time, completed by his son Abdullah, and amplified by supplements. Al-Musnad contains more than thirty thousand ahadeeh. His other works include ”Kitab-us-Salah”, on the discipline of making salah and “Kitab-us-Sunnah”, on matters of aqueedah as they are understood from the hadith of the prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam and the sayings and commentaries of the companions of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam.

    Imam ath-Dhahabi related many of the praises stated by the scholars who knew Ibn Hanbal personally. The biography of Ibn Hanbal spread over at least 113 pages of ath-Thahabi’s, “Siyar A’lam an-Nubala”.

    Abdullah ibn Ahmad, the Imam’s son, said: “I heard Abu Zur’ata Rrazi say: ‘Your father had memorised a million hadith, which I rehearsed with him according to the topic,’”

    Ali ibnul-Madini, the great Imam of Hadeeth said: “Truly, Allah reinforced this religion with Abu Bakr as-Siddiq the day of the great apostasy (ar-Riddah), and He reinforced it with Ahmad ibn Hanbal the day of the Inquisition (al-Mihnah).”

    Harmala said: “I heard ash-Shafi’ee say: ‘I left Baghdad and did not leave behind me anyone more virtuous, more learned, more knowledgeable than Ahmad ibn Hanbal.’”
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    His Aqeedah

    When we come to Aqeeda issues, then truly Imam Ahmad is known as Imam of Ahl al-Sunnah. This is due to the depth and length at which he spoke about the issues of belief, such that no other Imam could compete with him in that. It is for this reason that the Ahl al-Bida amongst the Hanbalis have been far less than Ahl al-Bida amongst the other Madhabs, simply because the narrations from the Imam regarding various Aqeeda issues are so numerous and explicit, that it becomes difficult for a person to deviate while claiming to be a Hanbali.

    In summary, the Imam would affirm all that Allah and His Messenger affirmed in the divine texts, without likening Allah to His creation. The Imam would not negate anything affirmed in the divine texts, by figurative interpretation, nor would he refuse to acknowledge the apparent meaning of the texts. He believed that Allah Speaks with letters and sound, that Allah Hears and Sees, and that Allah has two Hands with which He created Adam, and that Allah has a Face, and that Allah Rose over the Throne, and that Allah is all Knowing, All Power and All Able to do everything, and that Allah has His own Will, He Does what He likes, and that He becomes angry, as He becomes pleased, and that Allah has Written and Decreed upon His creation, and nothing leaves His knowledge, and nothing happens without His permission. He used to regard the Jahmiyah (followers of Jahm ibn Safwan), and the Rafidha who curse the Companions, to be Kuffar. He held that the sinful people amongst the Muslims are under the threat of Allah's punishment; that if He wishes He may punish them or forgive them. Contrary to the Khawarij, he would not declare a Muslim to be a Kafir on account of his sins, nor would he exclude actions from Iman unlike the Murjia. He was once asked about a people who believe in the 5 pillars of Islam, but refuse to perform them, he said in response that they are Kuffar. He believed in the miracles that happen at the hands of Awliya (pious Muslims). He also believed that Abu Bakr is the best of the Companions, then Umar, and then Uthman. When an authentic Hadeeth regarding Ali reached him, he added after 'Uthman, 'Ali to be from the best of the Companions, then the rest of those promised paradise, and then the people of Badr from the Muhajireen and then the Ansar. He regarded it to be prohibited to discuss the differences amongst the Companions or to mention any of them with dislike. Rather, the Companion who saw the Prophet for a fraction of a section is better than the Tabi'i who met thousands of Companions and fought hundreds of battles.

    The Trial

    Our Imam was remembered for his suffering during the trial of the 'Creation of the Quran'. The Mu'tazilas, a deviant Muslim sect, believed that the Quran is the speech of Allah, however, Allah created that speech as a separate entity, and He did not speak Himself. Throughout the Umayyad's rule they were sidelined and never given the position of prominence and influence, until Khalifa Ma'mun came to power; who elevated them to the ranks of judges and gave them sufficient influence such that they were able to establish their opinions as the only acceptable state-beliefs, calling for the examination and punishment of anyone who differed.

    Many senior scholars gave in to the ruler's request, which greatly upset the Imam, to the extent that the Imam boycotted them his entire life for weakening and for not remaining patient upon the truth. From those who failed to stand firm, was the famous Hadeeth scholar and the Imam of Jarh and Ta'deel Ali ibn al-Madeeni. When the Imam heard about him, he wrote a poem about Ibn al-Madeeni, condemning him, saying:


    Ya ibn al-madini al-ladhi 'uridat lahu
    Dunya fa Jada bi dinihi li yanalaha

    Ma dha da'aka li intihali maqalatin
    Kunta taz'umu kafiran man qalaha


    O Ibn al-Madini to whom the worldly life was presented,
    So he strove to achieve it at expense of his religion

    What made you embrace a creed (about which)
    You would claim: Kafir is the one who says it!


    When the Imam's turn came, and he refused to give in, he was chained up and despatched to Ma'mun, along with his companion, Nuh. On the way, the Imam made Dua to Allah that he would not like to see Ma'mun and soon after they were told of the news that Ma'mun has died. Nuh also passed away while they were travelling, and so Imam Ahmad prepared his funeral, prayed over him and buried him. The Imam remained imprisoned until al-Mu'tasim assumed power. Al-Mu'tasim was very much unlike his predecessor – namely, quite ignorant of Islam. However, because he was specifically advised by Ma'mun, he continued to oppress Ahl al-Sunnah in general and the Imam in particular, who was severally beaten during his rule. He was freed for a short period, later in his reign.

    After al-Mu'tasim passed away, al-Wathiq took over the office of Khilafa. However, since by that time the general public had become enraged over the policies of the government, to the extent that al-Wathiq feared a revolt, he did not re-imprison the Imam, due to his fame, love and respect amongst the general public. Instead, he sent a message to the Imam saying: "Do not live with me on this earth!" After receiving this message the Imam went into hiding. However, those of the scholars of lesser fame were treated very harshly and sometimes killed, as happened with the famous student of Imam al-Shafi'i, Ahmad ibn Nasr al-Khaza'i. When al-Wathiq was informed about him, he ordered for Ahmad ibn Nasr to be brought in front him. He then asked Ahmad ibn Nasir about his belief in the speech of Allah and whether we will see Allah or not on the Last Day, to which he gave the standard Sunni reply. Al-Wathiq, incensed with his response, took his sword and struck his neck himself and ordered for his head to be placed on a spear in the town centre of Baghdad.

    After al-Wathiq came al-Mutawakkil who loved the Sunnah of the Prophet SallAllahu 'alaihi wa-sallam and the scholars. With him, Allah relieved the believers of the great trial they went through. Unlike his predecessors, he honoured Imam Ahmad and disgraced Ahmad ibn Abi Duad who was responsible for the Fitnah. Al-Mutawakkil loved to look after the Imam and take care of his affairs and ask about his health. However, because the Imam disliked entering upon the ruler, he would refuse to go to him or accept his offerings. Once, al-Mutwakkil, knowing that the Imam would refuse his offerings, presented some gifts to Imam's son, Salih. When Imam Ahmad came to know about it, he was furious and refused to eat from his son's wealth.
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    Illness, Death and Funeral

    After he became 77, severe illness and fever struck him, and he became very weak, although he never complained about his infirmity and pain until he died. In spite of his debilitation, he would urge his son, Salih, to help him stand up for prayer. When he was unable to stand, he would pray sitting, or sometimes lying on his side. Masses flocked to the door of the Imam after hearing of his illness, including the rulers, who sought Imam Ahmad's permission to visit them, but the Imam denied them due to his desire to remain distant from the rulers. Once, an old man entered upon the Imam in his illness and reminded him of his account before Allah, to which the Imam began to weep profusely. On another occasion, a man who took part in the beatings inflicted on the Imam, came to Salih, the son of Imam, and begged him to seek permission from his father to allow him to enter, for he felt guilty for being involved in the suffering of Imam. When he was finally given permission, he entered upon the Imam and wept, asking for his forgiveness. Imam Ahmad forgave him on the condition that he would never repeat his actions, so the man left the Imam weeping, and all those present with the Imam shed tears.

    'Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal says that while Imam Ahmad was on his death bed, he kept drifting in and out of consciousness, and gesturing with his hands saying: 'No… No… No…' When asked about it, the Imam replied: 'The Devil was standing near me, trying his hardest, while saying: 'Come on, Ahmad!', and I was replying back: 'No… No…' The Imam kept saying this until he passed away.

    On Friday the 12 of Rabi' al-Awwal 241 AH, the great exemplary Imam passed away, When the people heard the news of his death, they came out on the streets. One of the rulers, upon hearing the news, sent burial shrouds along with perfumes to be used for Imam's funeral. However, respecting the Imam's wishes, his sons refused the offering and instead used a burial shroud prepared by his female servant. In fact, his sons did not even use the water from their homes to wash the Imam, because the Imam had forsaken to eat, drink and utilise any of their resources, because they had accepted the offerings of the Khalifah.

    After his funeral was prepared, his sons prayed over him, along with around 200 members of the ruling family, while the public – both men and women – filled the streets, awaiting the funeral procession. The Imam was prayed over again in the desert by multitudes of people. In fact, people kept praying over the Imam before his burial and after his burial at his grave.

    During the trial of Imam Ahmad, he used to say: "Say to the people of Bid'ah, the decisive factor between us and you is the day of funerals"; meaning, those who stick to the truth and sacrifice their lives for it, Allah loves them and so does his entire creation, and this is manifested in their death, which is mourned by the multitudes; and this is exactly what took place at the funeral of this great Imam. For it is estimated that about 1 300 000 people attended the funeral of Imam Ahmad. One of the scholars said in relation to this that such a huge turn out on someone's funeral has never been reported in the history of the Arabs, not in Jahiliyah nor in Islam. Another scholar relates that he attended the funeral of Ahmad, and he wanted to go to his grave and pray over him. However, due to the crowds, he wasn't able to reach his grave until after a week, when the crowds had lessened! In stark contrast are the funerals of the leaders of Ahlul-Bid'a, where no more than a handful attended. The funeral procession of the Ahmad of Bid'ah – Ahmad ibn Abi Duad – the staunch enemy of the Ahmad of Sunnah, who instigated the Mu'tazili inquisition against Ahl al-Sunnah, was not witnessed by huge crowds, indeed he was not noticed by anyone, nor did anyone carry his funeral to the grave accept a few from the ruling family. Likewise, al-Harith al-Muhasibi was only prayed over by three or four people, while the figurehead of misguidance Bish al-Mirrisi was similarly prayed over by a handful of Muslims.

    The Imam's funeral was the day when Allah blessed Ahl al-Sunnah with clear victory and honoured Islam and the Sunnah of the Prophet – SallAllahu 'alaihi wa-sallam; for this day, multitudes flooded the streets and prayed over the Imam, while they openly and loudly cursed al-Karabisi and al-Marrisi, the leaders of Bid'ah. When al-Mutawakkil was told about this, he enquired about al-Karabisi; and upon being informed about his Bid'ah, the Khalifah put him under house-arrest until he died.

    The Madhab of Imam Ahmad

    After the death of this great Imam, his students spread across the Muslim world and took with them his opinions regarding Aqeeda, Fiqh, Hadeeth, Jarh and Ta'deel and other sciences. From the foremost of his students are: his two sons, Salih and Abdullah, Hanbal ibn Ishaq, al-Marrudhi, al-Kawsaj, Ibn Hani, Abu Dawud (compiler of Sunan Abi Dawud), al-Athram, Abu Zur'ah al-Razi, Abu Hatim al-Razi, 'Abdul-Wahhab al-Warraq, al-Tirmidhi and many others. Yet it was not until al-Khallal travelled the Muslim world, collecting the opinions and knowledge of Imam Ahmad from his students, that the Madhab of our Imam was compiled in an organised form, and this is when al-Khallal compiled all the narrations into a voluminous work known as Jami' al-Khallal.

    This collection was then summarised into a short treatise on the Fiqh of Imam Ahmad by the Hanbali scholar al-Khiraqi, which became known as Mukhtasar al-Khiraqi. This treatise was the first Fiqh manual ever written in the Madhab, and its first ever explanation was also written by al-Khiraqi. Thus, al-Khiraqi was the first author of a Fiqh manual in the Madhab, the first one to write a Sharh (explaination to a manual), and indeed the first Hanbali to explain his own manual in Fiqh.

    Allah placed much blessing in the Fiqh manual by al-Khiraqi such that it was explained several times by various scholars; the best and the most beneficial explanation ever given to this manual was by the great Hanbali Imam, Muwaffaq al-Din Ibn Qudamah al-Maqdisi, in his grand masterpiece, al-Mughni.
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    Hanbali Books on 'Aqeedah

    Apart from the aforementioned books, there are many other works written in Hanbali Aqeeda and Fiqh. In 'Aqeedah, for instance, we have the works of the Imam such as the Book of Sunnah and al-Rad 'Ala al-Zanadiqah wa al-Jahmiyah (The refutation of the Heretics and the Jahmis), which although al-Dhahabi claims is a forgery on the Imam, it is nevertheless authentically attributed to him; Apart from these two works, there are several letters of the Imam discussing Aqeeda found in the Tabaqat of ibn Abi Ya'la, some of them are authentic while others may not be so. In Aqeeda, we also have the Book of Sunnah by al-Athram, the Book of Sunnah by 'Abdullah the son of Imam Ahmad, the Book of Sunnah by Hanbal ibn Ishaq, the cousin of Imam, the Book of Sunnah by the compiler of Madhab, al-Khallal, books of al-Qadhi Abu Ya'la such as Ibtal al-Ta'weel li Akhbar al-Sifat (Nullification of Figurative Interpretation of Narrations Pertaining to Divine Attributes) and al-Iman; the famous Ghunya by Abdul-Qadir al-Jilani also has a beneficial section on Hanabli beliefs.

    From Hanbalis books on Aqeeda, we have Lum'at al-I'tiqad by Ibn Qudama, and indeed many books written by Sheikh al-Islam Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyah al-Harrani, and his student Ibn al-Qayyim.

    Hanbali Books on Fiqh

    When we come to Fiqh, then the following are some of the reliable and recognised books in the Hanbali Madhab; al-Jami' by al-Khallal, al-Shafi by Ghulam al-Khallal, Mukhtasar al-Khiraqi by al-Khiraqi and its Sharh al-Mughi, al-'Umdah and al-Muqni' by Ibn Qudamah, al-Insaf by al-Mardawi, Zad al-Mustaqni' which is an abridgement of al-Muqni' of Ibn Qudamah by al-Hajjawi, Sharh Muntaha al-Iradat by al-Futuhi and al-Buhuti, Kashaf al-Qina' by al-Buhuti, and many other works.

    Notable Hanbali Scholars

    From the notable Hanbali scholars throughout Islamic history – apart from the students of the Imam, we may mention the following:

    * Al-Khallal (who gathered all the narrations from Imam Ahmad from around the world and compiled them in a collection called Jami' al-Khallal)
    * al-Khiraqi (who summarised Jami' al-Khallal into a Fiqh manual, the mother of all Fiqh manuals in the Madhab)
    * Ghulam al-Khallal
    * Ibn Hamid – who is the last of the first Tabaqah of Hanbalis
    * al-Qadhi Abu Ya'la al-Kabir (a Hanafi who became a Hanbali, also regarded to be the victor of Ahmad's Madhab)
    * al-Shaheed Abu Ya'la al-Sagheer (the grandson of the al-Qadhi Abu Ya'la al-Kabeer, and the author of Tabaqat)
    * Abu al-Khattab
    * Abu Isma'il al-Harawi (the author of Manazil al-Sa'irin – a manual in Suluk – which was later on expounded on by Ibn al-Qayyim in Madarij al-Salikin. He is the one known for saying the line of poetry: Ana Hanbaliyun Mahayiytu wa in amut – Fa wasiyati li al-Nasi an yatahanbalu; meaning: I am a Hanbali as long as I live, and when I die – my will to the people is to become Hanbalis)
    * Abul-Wafa 'Ali ibn 'Aqil (he was influenced by the Mu'tazilas but he later on repented. He was nevertheless a genius and a great Hanbali scholar without doubt)
    * Muhammad ibn Abi Ya'la
    * The famous 'Abdul-Qadir al-Jailani (and he is free from those who worship him besides Allah from amongst the misguided Sufis)
    * Ibn al-Jawzi (who was very much influenced by the writings of Ibn 'Aqil, which left him confused with regard to many 'Aqeeda issues, so he was neither from the mainstream Hanbalis, nor was he with the Ash'aris in beliefs)
    * The famous Imam and Mujahid Muwaffaq al-Din Ibn Qudamah al-Maqdisi (who is the author of four classical books in Fiqh i) al-'Umdah for the beginners, ii) al-Muqni' for intermediate students, iii) al-Kafi for those who finish al-Muqni' and iv) al-Mughni for advanced students)
    * Majd al-Din Ibn Taymiyah (the grand-father of Sheikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah)
    * Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyah al-Harrani who was truly Sheikh al-Islam, and his close students;
    * Shams al-Din Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziya and,
    * Ahmad ibn 'Abdil-Hadi
    * Najm al-Din al-Tufi (who is the author of some beneficial works, such as his summarisation of Rawdat al-Nadhir by Ibn Qudama, which is also known as al-Bulbul in Usul al-Fiqh. Unfortunately, in spite of being a Hanbali in Fiqh, he used to describe himself as an Ash'ari as well as a Rafidhi, and quite a few times he was admonished for his evil and wicked statements with regards to Umar. It is reported that he repented; however, Ibn Rajab claims that his repentance was never sincere)
    * Muhammad ibn Muflih
    * Ahmad ibn Qadhi al-Jabal (He is regarded to be Sheikh al-Hanabilah in poetry. He would often recite the poem: Nabiyi Ahmad wa Kadha Imami – wa Sheikhi Ahmad Ka al-Bahri Tami * wa ismi Ahmad Li Dhaka Arju Shafa'ata Ashrafi al-Rusul al-Kirami; which means: My Prophet is Ahmad, and so is my Imam – and my Sheikh Ahmad is overflowing with knowledge like an ocean * And my name is Ahmad and therefore I hope for – the intercession of the most noble of the Messengers)
    * Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (who is famous for numerous beneficial works in service of Islam and the Madhab)
    * Al-Mardawi, (the Sheikh al-Hanabilah in his time and the author of Insaf in which he mentions nearly all of the narrations of the Imam, as well as the opinions of Hanbalis, while clarifying the Madhab and that which does not constitute it, as he explains al-Muqni of Ibn Qudamah.)
    * Al-Hajjawi, (the author of the abridgement of al-Muqni', known as Zad al-Mustaqni', a much-referred-to manual of Hanbali Fiqh in the Arabian Peninsula.)
    * Al-Buhuti (the Sheikh al-Hanabila in his time and author of many beneficial works, including the Rawd al-Murbi', Sharh Muntaha al-Iradat and the masterpiece Kashaf al-Qina')
    * Al-Saffarini al-Hanbali
    * 'Abd al-Rahman al-Ba'li
    * Muhammad ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab (the great reviver of Islam who unified the forces of Tawheed against Shirk and fought the polytheist until Allah was worshipped alone)
    * Hamad ibn 'Atiq
    * 'Abdullah Aba Butain
    * Muhammad Jamil al-Shatti
    * 'Abdul-Qadir ibn Badran (used to be a Shafi'i who later on became a Hanbali and drowned in the Hanbali Madhab until he knew the Madhab inside-out. He then authored his famous introduction to the Hanbali Madhab known as, al-Madkhal Ila Madhab al-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal)
    * Ibn Duwaiyan (the author of Manar al-Sabeel)
    * Nasir ibn al-Sa'di
    * Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Aal al-Sheikh
    * 'Abdur-Rhman ibn Qasim (the compiler of historical works including Majmu' Fatawa ibn Taimiyah, Durar al-Saniyah, footnotes on al-Rawdh al-Murbi', Ibn Ibrahim's Sharh on Adab al-Mashi Ila al-Salah and many others)
    * 'Abdul-'Aziz Ibn Baz
    * Salih Ibn Uthaimeen
    * Bakr ibn 'Abdullah Abu Zaid
    * 'Abdullah ibn 'Abdul-'Aziz ibn 'Aqil (who is regarded to be Sheikh al-Hanabilah of this age – may Allah preserve him)
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    Increase in Followers of this Madhab

    Many wonder why the followers of the Hanbali Madhab have always been fewer than the followers of rest of the Madhabs. Some even claim that the small following is indicative of the weakness of the Madhab. However, the truth is quite to the contrary, as one of the Hanbalis said:

    Yaquluna fi ashabi ahmada qillatun
    Fa qultu lahum inn al-kirama qalilu


    They say of the followers of Ahmad: How few they are!
    Thus I said to them: Surely the noble ones are always few!


    Truly, the poet is not far from the truth, since this Madhab has always been oppressed by its followers. This is because the followers of other Madhabs, whenever they excelled in knowledge, they took up positions of judges and Muftis, which became the reason for the Madhab to be studied and taught in schools, and a cause for it to spread. Whereas the Hanbalis, whenever Allah blessed them with excellence in knowledge, they become more engrossed in worship and thanks to Allah, embraced Zuhd and divorced the worldly life, fame and status. This is not only a statement of Abu al-Wafa Ibn 'Aqil, but also a testimony of al-Dhahabi al-Shafi'i in his book Zaghl al-'Ilm where he described the Hanbalis with similar qualities that distinguish them from others.

    Hence, the Hanbalis always remained a minority, until Sheikh Muhammad ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab rose up in Najd with the call to Tawheed, joined forces with Imam Muhammad ibn Sa'ud and established the much-neglected Shariah laws in the land. Since then until our time, the courts in the Arabian Peninsula have been predominantly Hanbali, bar some areas to the south, near Yemen, which remain Shafi'i. Indeed Allah blessed this Da'wah so much so that there is not a revival movement, nor a Jihad group in the world today except that it is influenced by the Da'wah of Sheikh Muhammad ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab. Even in a country like Egypt, which was historically at odds with the Wahhabi Da'wah, and until today it is riddled with grave-worshipping, with a complete control of a socialist-secularist government on al-Azhar and other religious institutes, that we find the young generation listening to audio lectures by Salafi lecturers from Jami'at Ansar al-Sunnah, which is heavily influenced by the Da'wah of Sheikh Muhammad. This is why it is no surprise that the current so-called "War in Terror" has explicitly named Wahhabism as its first ideological enemy.

    In fact, anyone with surface-knowledge of the Islamic history will know that Hanbalis have been known for their outstanding character, fearlessness and eagerness for commanding the good and forbidding the evil. Starting with our Imam who remained staunch against the heretics, and did not bow down to the government pressure to change his beliefs; after the Imam passed away and the Hanbalis grew stronger in Baghdad, Ibn 'Asakir notes that the Hanbalis would patrol the streets and if they saw a man with a non-Mahram woman, they would report him to the police, if they passed by a musical instrument or a bottle of wine, they would smash it; the first Hanbali scholar to write a Fiqh manual, al-Khiraqi died after being beaten up when he tried to command the good and forbid the evil in Damascus; Sheikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah would likewise patrol the streets with his students, and if they saw people playing chess they would turn the board upside down, if they saw utensils of wine or musical instruments, they would smash them, and how can anyone forget how daringly Ibn Taymiyah spoke to the Mongol ruler upon entering Damascus, or his repeated imprisonment for defending the beliefs of the Salaf; then Sheikh Muhammad's endless struggle against the Bid'ah and Shirk which became rampant in Najd, and how he was forced to leave towns, threatened with death.

    Conclusion

    This is the life and the Madhab of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal al-Shaibani in brief. After finishing this article, it was suggested to me that I should include further sections related to the Zuhd, humbleness and Taqwa of Imam Ahmad and include one or two narrations in each section, in order to make this article more heart-softening. However, the reality is that the suggested approach would require over 100 pages, which defeats the objective of compiling something as brief as possible. Therefore, the humble servant and author of this piece acknowledges that he has done great injustice to the man and his Madhab by summarising whatever he could into ten pages.

    However, if the reader has a strong desire to learn more, then I would recommend that he reads the best and the most comprehensive biography of our Imam by Ibn al-Jawzi in Manaqib al-Imam Ahmad (Merits of Imam Ahmad), and then our Imam's biography by Imam al-Dhahabi in his Siyar, for he dedicated over 150 pages of his masterpiece to our Imam. Apart from these two sources, one may also find well written biographies in books of Tabaqat of Hanbalis and their biographies. As for the Madhab, then one may read the richest introduction written about the Madhab yet by Dr. Bakr ibn 'Abdullah Abu Zaid called al-Madkhal al-Mufassal Ila Fiqh al-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (A detailed introduction to the jurisprudence of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal). Equally recommended is another introduction, albeit not so detailed, but unique in its own way, namely the book of Ibn Badran al-Dimashqi called al-Madkhal ila Madhab al-Imam Ahmad (An introduction to the Madhab of Imam Ahmad); and to complete the benefit, it is likewise recommended to read Ahmad ibn Hanbal al-Sirah wal-Madhab (Ahmad ibn Hanbal – the life and the Madhab) by Sa'di Abu Jaib, which covers many aspects of the Madhab not discussed in the two aforementioned Madkhals.


    May Allah accept from me the truth I wrote and forgive my shortcomings, for a human being is created weak, and to err is only human.
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    Benefits From The Life & Works Of, Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal

    By Shaykh Saleh ibn Abdul Azeez Aalish-Shaykh
    Taken from a recorded lecture entitled Min Ma'eenil-Imaam Ahmad

    The praise is for Allaah, the One who keeps a group of scholars available during the times when there is no messenger, scholars who bring those who have strayed back to the Guidance, curing their blindness and bringing them back to life using Allaah's Book. For how many have they brought back to life from those killed by Iblees? And how many strayed and then were guided by the scholars?

    What great effects they have on the people! And how filthy are the effects of the people on them! They expel from the Religion of Allaah the perversions of the people of falsehood, the twisted explanations of the ignoramuses, and the plagiarism of those who have strayed, those who bear the flags of innovation and dispute over the Book of Allaah.

    I praise Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted, and I thank Him. I testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah, and that He is alone without any partners, and I further testify that Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger, His pure one, His chosen friend. May Allaah raise his rank and the rank of all his family members and Companions, and may He grant them an abundance of peace.

    To proceed: I ask Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted, that He grants me and all of you beneficial knowledge, righteous actions, and submissive hearts. O Allaah! Teach us what will benefit us, and benefit us by what you teach us, and increase us in knowledge, good deeds, guidance, and adherence to the Sunnah! Hear our call, as You are the Most Merciful One!

    Dear brothers and sisters,

    This lecture has been entitled From the Fountains of Imaam Ahmad. What is intended from this title is that Imaam Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hambal, the one born in the year 164, the one who passed away in the year 241, was described as being like water that flowed from a spring. Like the spring that a thirsty person goes to in order to quench his thirst, he was like the spring that those who have been overcome by sins go in order to cleanse their souls. So all kinds of people used to go to him to quench their thirsts, and they would all be able to fulfil their various needs by going to him.

    The people have agreed that Imaam Ahmad was an imaam of guidance, the very head of the imaams of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah. They have also agreed that loving him and studying his history is an indication of someone's love for those who studied the Sunnah of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhe wa sallam).

    The people of the past were tested regarding their love for Imaam Ahmad. Whoever loved him was considered someone on the Sunnah; whoever spoke ill of him was someone of innovation and misguidance.

    This is not something strange, since the life story of Imaam Ahmad, from his earliest years to the end of his life, is the history of a companion of the Sunnah, someone who followed the Sunnah devoutly. His is the history of an imaam, a scholar of Hadeeth and Fiqh, a person of knowledge who spent his days and nights in acts of obedience worshipping Allaah.

    Dedicating One's Youth to Worship

    Since his childhood, Imaam Ahmad (may Allaah have Mercy on him) could be seen with signs of nusuk on him. Ma'roof Al-Karkhee (may Allaah have Mercy on him) said:

    "I saw Ahmad ibn Hambal when he was a young boy, and he had signs of nusuk on him. I used to hear him making statements that were full of benefit."

    This statement describes how he was upon guidance even as a young boy. He used to be seen with signs of nusuk on him. What is meant by nusuk is worship and acts of obedience. The effects of worship and obedience are not only physical ones seen in the appearance and dress, but their effects are also found in one's speech, manners, in the acts of worship and obedience themselves, and in one's preference for the next life over this one.

    Imaam Ahmad said about his own self:

    "I did not marry until after I reached 40 years of age."

    His companions said that this was because he used to be busy travelling to seek knowledge before that. He went to Makkah, and from there to San'aa'. There is a story about this trip:

    He set out with his companion, Yahyaa ibn Ma'een, for Hajj. He said to Yahyaa:

    "When I finish Hajj, verily I am going to Yemen to meet the scholar of Yemen, the scholar of Hadeeth, 'Abdur-Razzaaq ibn Hammaam As-San'aanee."

    As-San'aanee died in the year 210 after Hijrah.

    When they reached Makkah, they found that 'Abdur-Razzaaq was making Hajj that year as well. So Yahyaa knew who he was and met him. He saw him going around the Ka'bah, and since he knew him, he went and greeted him. Yahyaa said to 'Abdur-Razzaaq, and they knew each other: "This is Ahmad ibn Hambal." So 'Abdur-Razzaaq became happy about this and said: "It has reached us that he is a person who has a lot of goodness."

    When they prayed their two rak'ahs after making tawwaaf, Yahyaa said to Imaam Ahmad:

    "Ahmad, our provisions for the journey to San'aa' have been used. And here is 'Abdur-Razzaaq, so let us stay with him so we can take some narrations from him."

    Ahmad said to Yahyaa ibn Ma'een:

    "My intention is still present, and I will not oppose it. So I will continue on to San'aa'."

    This shows the effects of his commitment to the hardships of seeking knowledge. A trip to San'aa' in that time was not made in cars or airplanes or the likes, rather it was only made with great hardships, the realities of which can not be described.

    Ma'roof said, "I saw Ahmad ibn Hambal when he was a young boy and he had signs of nusuk on him." In reality, this is what we should see in our children, that they work hard to correct themselves in their youth, in their early years. Because at this, if they do not build upon this foundation with what is correct, with acts of worship and obedience, then it will be very difficulty after that, except for those whom Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted, excludes.

    Whoever holds to His Religion in his youth, firmness will return to him. Someone being devout or obedient is not just a claim or a verbal ascription to something, nor is it something seen only from the outside. Rather devoutness in the Religion entails one taking on serious rituals, he must worship, and he must be obedient.

    This leads us to the story when Imaam Ahmad once hosted one of his students in Hadeeth, 'Abdus-Samad ibn Sulaymaan. When he was hosting him in his house, and it came time to sleep, he brought him some water to make wudhoo' from or for general use. Then he went to sleep. When the morning came, Imaam Ahmad saw that all of the water was still there, so he asked about it. 'Abdus-Samad replied: "I did not use the water." Imaam Ahmad said, "A student of the narrations who does not do anything at night?!"

    He meant, "All the way to the morning, you did not pray in the night?! You did not worship!? You did not even pray two rak'ahs?!" 'Abdus-Samad replied, "Verily I am a traveller." He said, "Even as a traveller!"

    Meaning, "Where is the witr? Where is the prayer?"

    So without a doubt, if this was important in that day and time for cultivating one's soul and getting set in the proper direction, then we are in more need of it today. This is the case especially with the youth who seek knowledge, or those holding tight to their guidance, or those who display the effects of prayer, or those who are keen in doing good deeds.

    One must keep his soul tied to some acts of worship. No doubt, one must keep his soul tied to some acts of obedience. If you force the soul to be obedient, it will become obedient. If you abandon it, then it will be a soul that gravitates toward wrongdoing.

    It has been related that the Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said:

    "Whoever shows enduring patience, Allaah will make him firm upon patience. Whoever seeks knowledge, Allaah will teach him. Whoever hunts for good, he will be given it. Whoever expects evil, he will be made to fall into it." [1]

    Therefore, this description of Imaam Ahmad proves that he had an upbringing based on obedience to Allaah and acts of worship, so much so that he used to force his soul to shun many worldly things and to take on great hardships. The result of this was that he established his soul firmly upon obedience to Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted.
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    Speaking Only About Beneficial Matters

    Aboo Daawood Sulaymaan ibn Ash'ath, the author of Sunan Abee Daawood, was a student of Imaam Ahmad who related many issues from him, issues that are published today. He said, describing the imaam:

    "I have not seen anyone like Imaam Ahmad ibn Hambal. He never used to talk about the things that the people talk loosely about from the worldly affairs, but if some affair of knowledge was mentioned, he would talk."

    To repeat the quote, "I have not seen anyone like Imaam Ahmad ibn Hambal. He never used to talk about the things that the people talk loosely about from the worldly affairs, but if some affair of knowledge was mentioned, he would talk."

    This attribute is certainly an attribute of the great imaams of the most pious people, those who sternly dedicate their lives to what benefit the people. The one who speaks about every affair does not have the noble silence of the people of knowledge, nor the silence of the people of righteousness.

    So therefore, a righteous person whose heart is attached to the Next Life should be known by his silence when he does not speak, and he should be known by his speech when he talks. His speech is only about good things, and he keeps silent of evil affairs, as Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted, says:

    “There is no good in most of their private gatherings, except for those who order the people to give charity or order other acts of kindness, or those who mend broken ties between people" [2]

    Imaam Ahmad used to sit with his brothers occasionally, and sometimes with his companions and students. He would also mix with the common people as well. They would talk about a number of affairs. But Imaam Ahmad would only speak if there was something beneficial to be said. The benefit could be his teaching the people or ordering them with righteousness. They said:

    "If some affair of knowledge was mentioned, he would talk."

    In reality, this concept has been put to the test. The heart is not able to contain too many things, too many conflicting things inside a person's character. So it is binding on the student of knowledge to dedicate himself wholeheartedly to knowledge, first and foremost. He must stay away from vain talk and wasting his time. If he contemplates something, then he contemplates over some issue related to knowledge. If he speaks, then he speaks about knowledge. This will cause his life to take the task of seeking knowledge head-on, and it will give him a strong desire to study.

    As a result of this, the student's speech will differ from the speech of other people. Why? That is because the student speaks the language of the people of knowledge. He lives with the Companions and their students. He lives with Maalik, Ash-Shaafi'ee, Ahmad, and Sufyaan. He lives with Al-Bukhaaree and the imaams like Ibn Khuzaymah and Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah. He lives with the imaams of Islaam. He speaks with their words as he discusses issues with them. He is immersed in their oceans of knowledge.

    Hearing everything that the people talk about, and then engaging in that talk with them, and then reading things from just anyone and passing it on, all of this has an effect on the heart of the Muslim in general, specifically it has a bigger effect on the heart of the student of knowledge.

    This means that a person must make a mental note to himself that he must not allow his heart to be receptive to every single thing. Rather he must define its course and clarify his methodology within himself, and then he takes that path. And the greatest methodology is that of the inheritors of the Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam), those who he spoke about, saying:

    "Verily the prophets do not leave behind dirhams or deenaars, rather they leave behind knowledge. So whoever receives some of it, verily he has received an expansive treasure." [3]

    What a great accomplishment it is for a man to contemplate about his Religion, about knowledge, about that which brings him benefit! And when he speaks, he only speaks about an issue that will benefit him in his Religion, like ordering righteousness, commanding the people to give charity, teaching, learning, and the likes. Even in his everyday conversations, his desire for knowledge is evident.

    A man is raised in rank when he harnesses his eagerness for things. The soul is eager for many different things, so do not let it go to whatever it craves, force it to go after the things that Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted, has sought from you.

    Living in Fear of Allaah

    Al-Marwoodee was one of Imaam Ahmad's companions and students, and he relayed many issues from him. He said to Imaam Ahmad:

    "O Abaa 'Abdilllaah! There are so many people that call on you!" He looked at him and said, "I fear this may be something that gradually leads me to something evil."

    His student said to him, and he was truthful in what he said, "O Abaa 'Abdillaah! There are so many people that call on you!" He replied, "I fear this may be something that gradually leads me to something evil." This kind of statement can only come from a heart that fears Allaah and is fearful of meeting Him. It can only come from one who knows that the heart changes states. It can only come from someone who knows that this worldly life is nothing, and that the Next Life is the reality.

    Most of us, moreover all of us, except those whom Allaah has exempted, if it was mentioned to us that the people are praising us, or that the people are calling on us, we would be happy and cheerful, perhaps we would even be delighted with ourselves.

    So Imaam Ahmad said, remedying his soul, "I fear this may be something that gradually leads me to something evil." The statement, "I fear," shows that his heart had combined hope and fear, that he had hoped, but was also afraid. When he heard something related to a reward for his work, he said, "I fear this may be something that gradually leads me to something evil." He meant,

    "Verily, Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted, may be gradually leading me into a punishment by this, testing me to see if I am delighted with myself or not. Maybe Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted, is gradually leading me to a punishment,"


    As our Lord Himself, the Mighty and Exalted, describes how he gradually punishes some people:

    “And we will punish them gradually from places they know not, so leave them to Me! Verily My Plan is strong" [4]

    So they were destroyed. Therefore, this is what is binding on the heart of the person of tawheed, the believer, that it always remains in fear. These days, the talks about the meaning of hope, they areأ¢â‚¬آ¦ OK. But the people have gone overboard with it, to the point that many people rely on their hope in Allaah so much so that they have lost any fear of Allaah, they rarely fear Him.

    Everyone is hoping! The rewards for good deeds are mentioned, along with the rewards for obedience. Some are working, some making 'umrah, others are praying, some are reciting, etc. All of this is from the understanding of hope. But where is the fear? Where is the fear of Al-Jaleel, the Mighty and Exalted, may His Names be exalted?

    It is Allaah who described His Angels as being His Servants, and that they are not overburdened. Even their breathing glorifies Allaah, their actions are all actions of obedience, as the Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said:

    "The sky is full of sounds, and it should be. There is no space the width of four fingers except that there is an angel in it standing, bowing, or prostrating." [5]

    All of this, while Allaah describes His Angels:

    “They fear their Lord from above them, and they do as they are ordered" [6]

    So let every one of us examine our own selves in regards to this statement of Imaam Ahmad. Where is the fear of Allaah in our hearts? We have neglected obligations, and we all know our own selves, so where is the fear? We have fallen into sins, while Allaah has full knowledge of them, so where is the fear? We have neglected the rights of others, so where is the fear?

    We have neglected the rights of our believing brothers, by backbiting and slandering them, by jealousy and envy, and by oppression, so where is the fear of Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted? Let every one of us motivate our own selves to have fear in our actions! For verily fear will cause a heart to have humility, submissiveness, and an eagerness to prepare for the meeting with Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted.

    This is indeed a great statement, the one said by Imaam Ahmad in response to his student's remark about how many people call on him, "I fear this may be something that gradually leads me to something evil." May Allaah have Mercy on him, for what great vision he had! His was a great affair!

    In most of the gatherings that Imaam Ahmad attended, he would sit with his head between his knees. It was said that this was the position of a person of humility, one who contemplates about his own self and his future, while remaining seated in a posture that a person can not become haughty by it, nor seek to be seen by it.

    When death approached Imaam Ahmad, the doctor saw the excessive amount of blood in his urine and said: "This does not happen except due to a fearful heart." He meant that the time of death had caused him to reach that state.
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    Recognizing the Position of the Scholars

    From his other noteworthy sayings, may Allaah have Mercy on him, elevate his and our positions, and reward him with the best reward, the most plentiful and loftiest one:

    "Whatever the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah have detested, then it is evil."

    He said (repeating), "Whatever the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah have detested, then it is evil." He meant that the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah are to be referred to in affairs of what is to be considered evil and what is not.

    So whatever the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah have detested in the issues of 'aqeedah, then it is evil. Whatever the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah have detested with regards to manners, then it is evil. Whatever the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah have detested in affairs of ordering righteousness and forbidding evil, then it is evil. This means that a man must return to the scholars of the Sunnah if he wants to know about the affairs of the Sunnah, about the proper understanding of righteousness and evil.

    So whatever the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah have detested, then it is an evil thing, the evil of which we have no doubt in. This is indeed a great lesson from Imaam Ahmad for every Muslim, that he must follow and take guidance from the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah, those who have great concern for the Sunnah of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhe wa sallam).

    This goes for all aspects of tawheed, as well as acts of worship, business transactions, manners, education, work, and all dealings between people in the society. You must refer to the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah in these affairs. This will free your heart from your desires. This will cause your heart to be detached from what your intellect likes and dislikes. Therefore it is binding for us to be followers, for us to return often to the people of knowledge, to the people of the Sunnah for religious rulings.

    For whatever the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah detest, then it is an evil thing. That means that you do not classify things as being evil according to your own opinion, nor do you get to know affairs by way of your opinions, rather you must refer to the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah regarding the current and future affairs.

    This is something that there is no doubt about, since the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah are the inheritors of the prophets and the guides to the Sharee'ah. They are the ones that Imaam Ahmad spoke of in the introduction to his book:

    "The praise is for Allaah, the One who keeps a group of scholars available during the times when there is no messenger, scholars who bring those who have strayed back to the Guidance, curing their blindness and bringing them back to life using Allaah's Book."

    Therefore, they are the ones we refer to. The affairs are not about, "Is this a bad thing or not? Should I reject it or not? Should I respond or not? Is this correct or not?" These things must not come from a person's independent judgements from his own opinions, rather he must refer these matters back to the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah.

    Why? That is because these things are affairs of 'aqeedah, affairs of the Religion. Everyone claims that they understand the affair of enjoining good and forbidding evil. The Khawaarij claimed it, and thus stood up against the imaams. The Mu'tazilah claimed it, and thus viewed the opposition of the imaams as being a good thing. Like them, many groups claimed to be enjoining good and forbidding evil, and thus stood up against the imaams. However, the affair is to be according to the judgement of the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah, and whatever they have classified as being an evil thing.

    Loving and Hating for the Right Reasons

    From the noteworthy sayings of Imaam Ahmad about the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah is his statement:

    "Love the people of the Sunnah according to the degree that they are upon the Sunnah."

    This means that your love should be based on the Sunnah, that you do not love for petty reasons, nor for some worldly reasons. Real love is for those who are upon the Sunnah. It could be that a person of the Sunnah, a person of the correct 'aqeedah, does some evil things. However, due to his correct 'aqeedah, his clarity, and his submission to Allaah's Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam), you find that he is a person whose heart is free of innovation and doubts.

    He said, "Love the people of the Sunnah according to the degree that they are upon the Sunnah." What is understood from this also is that a man hates the people of innovation according to the degree of their innovations. This means that if they perform some acts of worship, or they are known for their distance from worldly things, or they have conveyed some important knowledge, then they are not to be hated for these things. Rather they are to be hated because they have gone against the Sunnah of our beloved one, Muhammad (sallallaahu 'alayhe wa sallam).

    Similarly, Aboo Ad-Dardaa', may Allaah have Mercy on him and be pleased with him, used to say, "O how great is fasting!" mocking them, "Rather how great are the people who sleep deeply at night and do not fast in the daytime! How could you be so unfair about the fool and how he stays up at night and how he fasts in the daytime?! For verily an atom's weight of righteousness along with taqwaa and conviction is greater than a mountain's weight of worship performed by conceited people!"

    The scholars have said, explaining these words of Aboo Ad-Dardaa', that he was encouraging the people to love the one who sleeps all night without praying, as well as the one who does not fast any optional days. Why? They said that this kind of person, upon the Sunnah with conviction, his affair is good. He said, "An atom's weight of righteousness along with taqwaa and conviction is greater than a mountain's weight of worship performed by conceited people!"

    If a person is upon the Sunnah with conviction, then verily Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted, will bless his small efforts. A person may perform a lot of worship, be he is haughty and self-righteous about his worship, his lengthy recitation, or his many days of fasting. He looks at the people as if they are nothing. He does not even realize the effects of his behaviour, nor does he know how his actions will be at the time of his death.

    The Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said:

    "Verily a man may perform the deeds of the people of Paradise until there remains only a handspan's distance between him and it, and then what is written for him overtakes him, and he performs the deeds of the people of the Hellfire, and thus enters it."

    "And verily a man may perform the deeds of the people of the Hellfire until there remains only a handspan's distance between him and it, and then what is written for him overtakes him, and he performs the deeds of the people of Paradise, and thus enters it." [7]

    Because of this hadeeth, many of the Salaf used to cry upon thinking about the book that contains what is written for them, saying, "My heart in suspended, what has preceded me? (What is written for me?)"

    Others, when they used to think about their final actions as mentioned in this hadeeth, that what is written for him will overtake him, they would say, reflecting over these final deeds, "Our hearts are suspended according to our final actions, what will we be taken upon?"

    Therefore, when a person worships, he must worship with fear, fearing that perhaps Allaah will not accept that deed from him. Some of the Salaf said about this, "I only wish that I could offer two rak'ahs that I know would be accepted." Why? That is because Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted, says:

    “Verily it is only the deeds of the people of taqwaa that Allaah accepts" [8]

    We see here that Imaam Ahmad was establishing the relationship between every Muslim and Ahlus-Sunnah, between every Muslim and those of the correct beliefs in tawheed, those who do not contradict the Sunnah with their intellects, nor do they contradict the Sunnah with their desires.

    If something from the speech of the Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) reaches you, that which gives details to the Qur'aan, or if something reaches you from the actions of the Companions (Radiyallahanhum) or their speech, then it is the truth. The scholars are those who sufficed themselves with the reports of the Companions, acted by their way, and lived according to their guidance. Whoever takes from other than this is on the brink of destruction.
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    Identifying Innovation and Staying Away From it

    From Imaam Ahmad's other noteworthy sayings, (Rahimahu أ¢â‚¬ثœLlah), is his statement:

    "I do not know any people more in need of learning hadeeth than the people in our time." They asked him, "And why is that?" He replied, "Innovation has spread, so whoever does not have the Sunnah, or the narrations, then he will fall into innovation."

    Why would a person ignorant of the narrations of the Sunnah fall into innovation? Because innovation is something beloved to a person's soul, since the person only does it trying to get close to Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted.

    An example of this is what is reported about Ibn Mas'ood (Radiya أ¢â‚¬ثœLlahu 'anhu). He went to a gathering where one of those present would say to the rest, "Glorify Allaah 100 times," and they would say, "Subhaanallaah," 100 times. He would say, "Praise Allaah 100 times," and they would say, "Al-hamdu lillaah," 100 times. Then he would say, "Declare Allaah's Greatness 100 times," and they would say, "Allaahu akbar," 100 times, all of this with stones in front of them to keep count with. So Ibn Mas'ood (Radiya أ¢â‚¬ثœLlahu 'anhu) came to them when he was informed of this. He rebuked them, saying, "Verily you people are either more rightly guided than the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam), or you are upon a branch of misguidance! These are the dishes of the Messenger of Allaah (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) that are not yet even broken, and his wives have not yet even passed awayأ¢â‚¬آ¦" This shows that this event occurred shortly after the death of the Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam). They said to him, and they were good people, "O Abaa 'Abdir-Rahmaan! We only intended good!" They declared that they did not intend except good, to glorify Allaah, to praise Him, and to declare His Greatness. And you all know the hadeeth teaching us to do this every day. They said, "O Abaa 'Abdir-Rahmaan! We only intended good!" Ibn Mas'ood said, "How many have intended good, but never accomplish it?" He meant that a person must hold to the Sunnah in his affairs, as innovation is built upon the idea of intending good, just as those people said, "We only intended good!"

    People intend good in every type of innovation that you see, like innovations in our belief for example, like denying some of Allaah's Names and Attributes. You find them saying, "We were denying such and such an attribute to establish tawheed." They were only intending good. They negated an Attribute that Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted, is worthy of, something that is part of His Perfection, while they say, "We only intended good!" They only intended to exalt Allaah [9].

    The Mu'tazilah considered the negation of Allaah's Attributes to be from tahweed.

    Others named their negation of Allaah's Attributes "ta'weel" and explained them as something else. What did they intend by this? They intended to exalt Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted. However, the statement of 'Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood applies, "How many have intended good, but never accomplish it?"

    Certainly this is an important principle. How can a man be saved from this? How can someone be saved from worshipping with innovation, or admiring the innovative worship of others, or approving of their novelties in worship? These acts can seem outwardly good, they can seem to be ways to get close to Allaah. Perhaps they are acts of humility, the person may even be crying. How can he be saved from this confusion? He must have knowledge of the Sunnah, the narrations, and the statements of the people of knowledge.

    One of Imaam Ahmad's companions used to sit with Al-Haarith Al-Muhaasibee [10] frequently. Imaam Ahmad's companion said to him, "Al-Haarith is saying this and that, and he has humility in his worship, and he has great acts of worshipأ¢â‚¬آ¦" Ahmad said, "When does he visit you?" He replied, "He visits me after Maghrib." Imaam Ahmad said, "Then I will also come, but allow me to sit in a place where I can hear his talk but I do not see him nor does he see me. I want to hear his talk while he does not see me." So Imaam Ahmad went and hid himself. After praying Maghrib, they sat down and their host brought food. Then they prayed 'Eshaa', returned to the house, and sat down again. They sat for a long time and Al-Haarith did not speak. Rather he sat in humility, in a way that fear, humbleness, and humility could be felt from him. One of Al-Haarith's companions asked him something, and then he began to talk, using good manners and softening their hearts. He continued talking as some of his companions reached states of humility, and others began to weep.

    The companion of Imaam Ahmad said, "Then I went to see Imaam Ahmad, and I found him crying. So I said, 'O Abaa 'Abdilllaah! What about this talk that you heard?' He replied, 'I have not heard any speech finer than this! However, do not sit with him!'"

    He said, "I have not heard any speech finer than this! However, do not sit with him!" Why? Because this kind of speech had not been in accordance with the guidance of the people of the Sunnah who preceded them. He was coming with a new manner of speech and a new manner of humility that had not been known to the scholars, a new style that the people before them had not known. So due to this, Imaam Ahmad was afraid that, with these new things, if they would have continued sitting with them, they would have strayed toward some innovation. Imaam Ahmad prohibited the people from befriending Al-Haarith and from sitting with him, due to what reached him about some of his other erroneous statements.

    He said, "I have not heard any speech finer than this," referring to the talk that affected the people's hearts, "However, do not sit with him!" He said that because Al-Haarith's style of presenting knowledge was not the way of the people of knowledge.

    Let us return to what Imaam Ahmad said about that era, "I do not know any people in more need of learning hadeeth than the people of our time." They asked him, "Why is that?" He replied, "Innovation has spread, so whoever does not have the Sunnah, or the narrations, will fall into innovation."

    With regard to our current condition, this is something that everyone should take note of. Because, in our times, everyone loves the Religion, everyone wants to be religious and obedient, everyone wants to have humility in their hearts. But all of this must be done according to the Sunnah, since any act of worship that is not in accordance to the Sunnah is rejected. Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted, says:

    “He is the One who created life and death in order to test you, which of you are best in deeds." [11]
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    Praying at Night

    One of Imaam Ahmad's students, 'Abdus-Samad ibn Sulaymaan, said something that I mentioned earlier in this lecture, "I stayed with Ahmad ibn Hambal. He left for me a container of water. In the morning he found that I had not used it. He said, 'A companion of the narrations, and he has no activity in the night?!' I told him, 'I am a traveller.' He replied, 'Even as a traveller!'"

    This is an outstanding lesson from Imaam Ahmad! The student of knowledge must keep himself upon some rites of worship, he must have an eagerness to get close to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

    How will he memorize the Sunnah? How will he gain knowledge? How will he learn? How will he gain understanding? How will he comprehend the meanings of the Qur'aan? How will he understand its explanation? How will he memorize the Qur'aan when he does not keep himself firm upon acts of worship and obedience?

    He must dedicate himself specifically to praying at night, with whatever is easy for him. Allaah says:

    “Stand the night except for a little." [13]

    Then, Allaah the Exalted says in the last part of the same chapter [14]:

    “Then recite from the Qur'aan what is easy." [14]

    This means that you stand for a time that is easy on you, even if it is only three rak'ahs. Stand for whatever is easy for you.

    It cannot be that the norm for the student of knowledge is that he does not pray tahajjud at night, that he does not dedicate himself to some worship. The righteous man, the one who seeks to correct himself, must have a special concern for this great act of worship, standing in the night.

    Praying at night is one thing. These days we need to talk about something even more serious. We have to talk about offering the Fajr Prayer in congregation! If the people of the past were advised to take care of their prayers at night, then where are we in these times when many of the people who ascribe to righteousness can not even master praying the Fajr Prayer in congregation!

    Then how will our affair be, and what should we be talking about? No doubt the affair is not easy, so let every one of us inspect our own selves. Let us repent sincerely, without delay, from every sin. If we have been negligent of our duties, then repentance is obligatory. If we have been negligent of recommended things, then a person renews his commitment to seek Allaah's great Bounties.

    Allaah the Exalted has described the people of taqwaa in Soorah Ath-Thaariyaat:

    “Verily the pious will be in gardens and springs, receiving what Allaah has given them, verily they used to do good works before that, they used to sleep little at night, and they used to seek forgiveness in the morning.أ" [15]

    Al-Hasan Al-Basree (Rahimahu أ¢â‚¬ثœLlah) spoke about these two verses: they used to sleep little at night, and they used to seek forgiveness in the morning with some very remarkable comments. He said, "They stood the night praying, and when the early morning came they sought forgiveness, fearing that their prayers would not be accepted from them."

    These are the kinds of statements that come from those who have live hearts. We may have no part in the affair except to convey the narration, as the ones who we narrate to may be more receptive and understanding of them than the narrator.

    Memorizing the Qur'aan

    From the noteworthy sayings of Imaam Ahmad (Rahimahu أ¢â‚¬ثœLlah) is his statement: "'Azeezun 'alayya that the dunyaa melts the hearts of men whose chests comprehend the Qur'aan!"

    He said (repeating), "It is hard for me to accept that the dunyaa could melt the hearts of men whose chests comprehend the Qur'aan."

    If a man is able to carry the Qur'aan with him in his chest, then verily Allaah has given him a great bounty indeed. On the Day of Judgement it will be said to the recitor of the Qur'aan:

    "Read, ascend, and recite with rhythm as you used to recite rhythmically in the dunyaa! For verily your place will be determined by the last verse you recite." [16]

    The one who memorizes the Qur'aan is the most deserving of the people to be obedient. The one who memorizes the Qur'aan is the most deserving of the people to possess humility. He is the most deserving of the people to be one who strives hard for Paradise and flees from the Hellfire. The one who memorizes the Qur'aan is the most deserving of the people to not be swept under by the dunyaa.

    This is why the Imaam (Rahimahu أ¢â‚¬ثœLlah) said, "'Azeezun 'alayya that the dunyaa melts the hearts of men whose chests comprehend the Qur'aan!" For the person of understanding, which is better - the dunyaa or the Qur'aan? Is there anything comparable to it? Is there anything similar?

    Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted, has said in Soorah Yoonus:

    “Say: Let them rejoice over Allaah's Bounty and His Mercy, As it is better than everything they gather" [17]

    Aboo Haatim reported a story in explanation of this verse, saying:

    "When the camels that people paid their zakaah with arrived, one of 'Umar's servants (Radiya أ¢â‚¬ثœLlahu 'anhu) said, 'O Commander of the Believers! Could we take a look at the camels of zakaah?' So they went to see the camels that were kept caged in the outskirts of Al-Madeenah. When they saw the camels, the servant became fascinated by their great number and said, "O Commander of the Believers! This is Allaah's Bounty and His Mercy!" 'Umar (Radiya أ¢â‚¬ثœLlahu 'anhu) looked at him and said, "You have lied! Allaah's Bounty and His Mercy is the Qur'aan! “Say: Let them rejoice over Allaah's Bounty and His Mercy, As it is better than everything they gather!أ¢â‚¬?) Rather these camels are what the people gather!" [18]

    Rarely could the dunyaa melt the one who memorizes the Qur'aan, learns its explanation, has a special relationship with it, prays with it, or leads the people in prayer with it. Rarely could he be someone who follows his desires! Rarely could he slip into doubts or fall victim to his lusts! Rarely could the one who memorizes the Qur'aan, the one known by the Qur'aan, be a person of disobedience and neglect while Allaah has honoured him by causing his heart to contain the Speech of Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted.

    What a great statement! He was grieving, "'Azeenun 'alayya," meaning it is a great burden on him, "That the dunyaa melts the hearts of men whose chests comprehend the Qur'aan."

    What is the dunyaa anyway with its lofty status? What is the dunyaa with all its wealth and women? What is the dunyaa and everything in it compared to the Speech of Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted?!

    The Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) described the two rak'ahs before the Fajr Prayer:

    "The two rak'ahs of Fajr are better than the dunyaa and everything in it." [19]

    This is for the one who understands the reality of the Religion and the reality of the return to Allaah.
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    Seeking Knowledge Until Death

    Imaam Ahmad had two sons, 'Abdullaah and Saalih. They were half-brothers, meaning that each of them had a different mother.

    Saalih, the son of Imaam Ahmad, said, "A man saw my father carrying a mih-barah." A mih-barah was a wooden inkwell that students used to carry along with their pens. He said, "A man saw my father was carrying a mih-barah, and said, 'O Abaa 'Abdillaah!' Look at how the all the people were fascinated by him, even the elders of the people! He said, "O Abaa 'Abdillaah! You have reached this position, you are the imaam of the Muslims!" He had a problem seeing Imaam Ahmad carry his mih-barah as the young students would carry it, or that he would still read books or shoulder the same responsibilities that the youth did. Imaam Ahmad replied with a statement that nullified this man's whole understanding. He said, "With the mih-barah all the way to the maq-barah (the graveyard)." What did he mean? He meant, "I will be busy with knowledge until I die."

    Another narration mentions that he said it at another occasion to another group of people. "As for me," he said, "I will seek knowledge until I am placed in the grave."

    When the time of his death came near, he said to those around him, "Get me the hadeeth of Hushaym." So they told him the hadeeth. This Hushaym was Hushaym ibn Basheer, Imaam Ahmad's first teacher. He met him in the year 179, when he began seeking knowledge at the age of 16. He was between 15 and 16, as he was born in the year 164 and began seeking knowledge in 179. So they read the hadeeth. It mentioned that Ibn Seereen used to dislike a person groaning from pain. At that time, Imaam Ahmad had became very ill and he used to groan due to the pain. When they informed him that Ibn Seereen used to dislike groaning, he did not groan again until he died.

    This is the reality of his statement, "I will seek knowledge until I am placed in the grave." Meaning, "I must continue benefiting from knowledge." So if you have left your youth behind and become a teacher or an educator, or a lecturer or professor in the university, or an author, and you say, "I have finished seeking knowledge." This is the situation of someone who does not know the reality of the affair.

    Al-'Ilm is knowledge of what? It is knowledge of the Speech of Allaah and the speech of His Messenger (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam). Has anyone reached a level of awareness of the meanings of the Speech of Allaah and His Messenger (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam), and also the statements of the scholars explaining the Book and the Sunnah, a level of awareness that is sufficient?

    No one has reached that level. No one who has the right intention and a proper heart has reached that level. Regarding this, Imaam Ahmad said, "With the mih-barah all the way to the maq-barah." He was addressing everyone, advising us to continue seeking knowledge and not to give it up for any petty reason.

    In the study circles of our masjids we have seen a great number of students who are eager to learn for two months, and then they abandon it. Three months or so only. What is this?! Some of them seek knowledge for 3, 4, 5, or 7 years and then they abandon it.

    Why is that? Is it because the dunyaa has come to you, so you are finished and now you head off into the dunyaa? Is it because a position was offered to you and you took it? Is it because you have reached a certain status, you have become a school director or professor in the university? For this you stop seeking knowledge? No! You must continue seeking knowledge until you die. This is what will correct the society's problems, if their scholars take this advice. As for the students of knowledge, then they must hold fast to this advice, "With the mih-barah all the way to the maq-barah." He must stay with his book until he dies, reading, learning, memorizing, reviewing, teaching, until his end.

    What are the people saying these days? The rulings related to prayer, we know them, no problem. If you asked them about many of the rulings, you will find that they do not know them. Why is that? It is because they have become satisfied with the knowledge they have, even delighted that they have the knowledge they have. We ask Allaah that He excuses us and that He is pleased with us.

    If you asked them about affairs even greater than the prayer, issues of 'aqeedah, issues of tawheed, you will find that they have not fully grasped the issues, and they used to be students of knowledge! Why is that? Because they were negligent, and thus abandoned it. Knowledge is honour, if you abandon it, it will abandon you. If you take the task seriously, you will be given some of it, from what Allaah has decreed for you.

    Seeking Safety and Good Health When Supplicating

    Al-Khallaal was a student of Imaam Ahmad. I tried to bring a statement from each one of Imaam Ahmad's students who narrated something noteworthy, so if I did not fully accomplish this, then know that his history was rich, his sayings were many, and his school deserves that you study it and reflect over it. You will find that he was truly the imaam of Ahlus-Sunnah in his speech and actions.

    Al-Khallaal said, "I heard Ahmad ibn Hambal saying, 'I had memorized the Qur'aan. Then when I began seeking the narrations, I became busy.'" When he began seeking and memorizing the narrations, he became too busy to keep track of the Qur'aan, and forgot some of it due to his occupation with the narrations.

    "I had memorized the Qur'aan," said Imaam Ahmad, "But when I began seeking the narrations, I became too busy for it, and it got away from me. So I asked Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted, to grant me its memorization, but I did not add, 'in safety and good health.'"

    He said, "O Allaah! Grant me the memorization of the Qur'aan," without adding, "in safety and good health." He was saying that what is more befitting is to ask, "O Allaah! Grant me the memorization of the Qur'aan in safety and good health."

    He said, "So then I did not memorize the Qur'aan until I was shackled in prison. If you ask Allaah for something, ask for it in safety and good health."

    Firstly, the imprisonment of Imaam Ahmad was something that assisted and benefited the Sunnah. It was something that made the truth prevail, it made the 'aqeedah of the Salaf prevail during a time when the people were being tried by those who claimed that the Qur'aan was a created thing.

    So he was jailed in the way of the Sunnah, and he benefited the people greatly, as he guided the people to the Sunnah of the Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) and the correct belief regarding the Qur'aan not being created.

    Even though he was imprisoned for this great reason, prison is still not a place of safety or good health. Imaam Ahmad said, "I did not say, 'in safety and good health.' I asked Allaah to allow me to memorize the Qur'aan, and I did not add, 'in safety and good health.' So I did not memorize it until I was in prison and in chains."

    Without a doubt this is a great statement, showing that a man must think throughout his supplications and always ask Allaah to pardon him and cause him to be in safety and good health.

    So if you seek something from your Lord, the Mighty and Exalted, then ask Him to grant you safety and good health, since you do not know what is going to happen.

    Perhaps you may not receive what you ask for except at a time when a sickness has made you bedridden. Perhaps you will not receive what you ask for except after you have lost your children and family and you are sitting alone in your house. Perhaps you will not receive what you ask for except after being exiled from your homeland, something that you are not happy about and you did not choose it. So therefore, always ask Allaah to give you what you ask for in a state of safety and good health.

    Similarly, we should seek refuge in Allaah from trials, trials that cause people to go astray. So a person should include in his supplications that Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, keeps these trials away from him.

    The scholars have said that what is best is to seek refuge in Allaah from the trials that lead people astray. The supplicant should say, "O Allaah! I seek refuge in you from the trials that lead people astray!" or "O Allaah! I seek refuge in you from being tried in my Religion!" or the likes.

    This is because even good things are trials, the family is a trial, money is a trial. These are things that a person must deal with, he has to get married, he is going to have children, he has to have money, etc. These trials are good things in their origins, but they may cause some people to go astray. So a person must seek refuge in Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted, from all trials that may lead one astray.
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    The Effect of Knowledge in One's Writings

    'Abdullaah, the son of Imaam Ahmad, said, "A baby was born to my father. 'Abdul-A'laa gave me a letter of congratulations to give to my father." 'Abdul-A'laa was one of the scholars of hadeeth at that time. "He read it," continued 'Abdullaah, "And then tossed it aside." "This is not the writing of a scholar, nor a muhaddith," said Imaam Ahmad, "This is the merely the writing of an average writer."

    Imaam Ahmad was teaching his son a lesson, detesting what this scholar wrote, as no knowledge could be felt in his writing.

    In reality, this is also something we complain of in this day and time. The language of the people of knowledge in letters of correspondence, letters of congratulations, etc. has been lost, or the very least we can say is that there is not enough concern to use it.

    What is binding on the scholar, the student of knowledge, and the teacher is that his knowledge should make a presence in what he writes, even in simple letters of congratulation. He must not write like newspaper columnists, nor like common people, nor people engulfed in this worldly life, rather he must convey himself in a befitting way in his speech as well as his writings.

    So when 'Abdul-A'laa failed to write in this way, Imaam Ahmad tossed his letter aside, saying, "This is not the writing of a scholar, nor a muhaddith. This is the merely the writing of an average writer." By its style, the letter was not something to be expected from a person of knowledge. The style of the people of knowledge contains supplications and narrations from the Sunnah while presenting the focus of the letter, as well as some additional benefits that would be appropriate.

    Humbling Oneself and Rejecting Popularity

    The last point of guidance that we will take from the fountains of Imaam Ahmad that do not dry up, is the statement of Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Haaroon, "I saw that when Aboo 'Abdillaah walked the streets, he hated that someone would walk behind him."

    Furthermore, 'Abdullaah, the son of Imaam Ahmad, said, "When he went out to Jumu'ah prayer, my father would not allow anyone to follow behind him, and he used to stop until the people following him would pass him up."

    Why was that? Because this is a trial for the one being followed, and a form of humiliation to the follower. Imaam Ahmad knew that, if someone followed him, he would benefit, either from his supplications, or perhaps he would ask a question, but, from his keenness to remedy his soul, he disliked to be tested by having a group of people following behind him.

    A simple affair from something everyone does - he would not be pleased with anyone following him, rather he loved to walk by himself. He was so keen on keeping himself pure, by going out to the prayer and returning to his house alone.

    These manners will help everyone who has been tested by Allaah with a following of people, whether the people look up to him because of knowledge, status, or even worldly things. He must humble himself and not assist the Shaytaan in destroying his own self.

    He must shun all avenues leading to this. If he sees within himself any amazement or pride with himself pride, or that he sees himself as being great, then he must lower himself and be humble so that he can set himself straight. This is because pride is a huge thing, one of the major sins.

    The Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said:

    "The one who has even the smallest particle of pride in his heart will not enter Paradise." [20]

    This is what is binding on all those that the people follow, that they know this is a test from Allaah and they dedicate themselves to lowering themselves and having humility. And those who follow them should be careful as well, they should not go against someone trying to work by this advice.

    So if a person finds a scholar trying to be humble like this, then let him be easy on him. Let him benefit from him in any environment he finds him in, at study circles, in classrooms, etc., however, he must not follow him to every place as he may detest that. Every sincere scholar dedicated to the education of the people hates to have the people follow him, and he hates that they say great things about him, since praise is something that he fears will affect his heart.

    Ibn Mas'ood said, advising his students, prohibiting them from following him, "This is a belittlement of the followers and a trial for the one being followed."

    Conclusion

    I ask Allaah, the Mighty and Exalted, to make me and all of you from those who hold firm to taqwaa, those who push themselves against what their desires crave.

    I ask Allaah, the Glorified One, to reward the Imaam of Ahlus-Sunnah, Ahmad ibn Hambal, the best reward for how much we have gained from him. For verily he was to the people of his time as Aboo Bakr (Radiya أ¢â‚¬ثœLlahu 'anhu) was to the people of his time. As the people faced the apostates in the time of Aboo Bakr, they faced the evil fitnah of those who tried to introduce the idea of the Qur'aan being a created thing, as well as other trials that led many astray, in the time of Imaam Ahmad. As the first group had Aboo Bakr, the latter had Imaam Ahmad to make them firm, by Allaah's Bounty and His Blessing.

    O Allaah! Reward the imaams of Islaam and the scholars of the Religion with the best reward for the great amount of knowledge and beneficial guidance we have inherited from them!

    O Allaah! Make us from those guided by your Prophet, those who are made firm by his Sunnah, those who tread the path of the Companions of your Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam)!

    O Allaah! Grant us firmness upon the Sunnah and good closing deeds! O Allaah! Make us firm upon what you are pleased with until we meet you while you are pleased with us!

    O Allaah! Give us good closing actions! O Allaah! Give us shelter from the lowliness of this life, and from the punishment of the Hereafter! O Allaah! I seek refuge in you from slipping into disobedience or from being made to slip into disobedience, from going astray or being led astray by others, from oppressing or being oppressed, from being ignorantly or having others behave ignorantly to us!

    O Allaah! Correct those who are in charge of our affairs, and grant them success doing what you love and are pleased with, and make us and them from those who cooperate upon righteousness and piety.

    And may Allaah raise the rank of our Prophet Muhammad and grant him peace.

    Footnotes:

    [1] As for the first part of this hadeeth, "Whoever shows enduring patience, Allaah will make him firm upon patience," it is found in Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree (3/408 of Fat-hul-Baaree), on the authority of Aboo Sa'eed Al-Khudree (Radiya أ¢â‚¬ثœLlahu 'anhu). I was not able to locate the rest of the hadeeth mentioned.

    [2] Soorah An-Nisaa' (4):114

    [3] From an authentic hadeeth collected by At-Tirmithee and Ibn Maajah, on the authority of Aboo Ad-Dardaa' (Radiya أ¢â‚¬ثœLlahu 'anhu). Al-Albaanee declared it to be saheeh in Saheeh Sunan At-Tirmithee (#2682).

    [4] Soorah Al-Qalam (68):44-45

    [5] This hadeeth, with a slight difference in its wording, is found in At-Tahaawee's Mushkil Al-Aathaar and At-Tabraanee's Al-Mu'jam Al-Kabeer, on the authority of Hakeem ibn Hizaam. Al-Albaanee authenticated it in Silsilah Al-Ahaadeeth As-Saheehah (#852).

    [6] Soorah An-Nahl (16):50

    [7] Ibn Mas'ood (Radiya أ¢â‚¬ثœLlahu 'anhu), collected by Al-Bukhaaree (6/303 of Fat-hul-Baaree) and Muslim (#2643).

    [8] Soorah Al-Maa'idah (5):27

    [9] Based on their mistaken assumption that to say that Allaah has Attributes like speech, hearing, a hand, a foot, etc., this implies that He must be like His Creation. So based on this, they reject these Attributes, intending to glorify Allaah and clear Him from being like His Creation. Of course the correct position is to affirm the Attributes of Allaah that are mentioned in the Book and the Sunnah, they are truly His Attributes, they befit His Majesty, and they are not like the attributes of His Creation.

    [10] Al-Muhaasibee was a soofee ascetic from Baghdaad. Even though he was firm in some issues that were in accordance with the way of the Salaf, like how he made takfeer of his own father because he withheld from saying that the Qur'aan is not a created thing, the scholars still warned against him and his books. Aboo Zur'ah Ar-Raazee said, "Be warned about these books! They are books of innovation and misguidance!" Refer to Sayru A'laam An-Nubalaa' (12/110-112).

    [11] Soorah Al-Mulk (67):2

    [12] Soorah Al-Maa'idah (5):3

    [13] Soorah Al-Muzzammil (73):2

    [14] Soorah Al-Muzzammil (73):20

    [15] Soorah Ath-Thaariyaat (51):14-18

    [16] An authentic hadeeth found in Aboo Daawood and At-Tirmithee, on the authority of 'Abdullaah ibn 'Amr (Radiya أ¢â‚¬ثœLlahu 'anhu). Al-Albaanee declared it to be authentic in Saheeh Sunan At-Tirmithee (#2914).

    [17] Soorah Yoonus (10):58

    [18] Tafseer Al-Qur'aan Al-'Atheem (#10435, 6/1960) of Imaam Ibn Abee Haatim

    [19] An authentic hadeeth collected by Imaam Muslim (#725), on the authority of 'Aa'ishah (Radiya أ¢â‚¬ثœLlahu 'anha)

    [20] Muslim (#263), on the authority of 'Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood (Radiya أ¢â‚¬ثœLlahu 'anhu)

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