Imam ibn Qayyim al-Jauziyyah

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  1. Mabsoot
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    Biography of Imam ibn Qayyim al-Jauziyyah

    He is Abu[1] Abdullah Shams ad-Din[2] Muhammad[3], ibn[4] Abu Bakr, son of Ayyub, son of Sa`d, son of ‘Huraiz, son of Makki, az-Zur`ii[5] and then the resident of Damascus.
    He was born in the lunar month of Safar the year 691 AH (after the Hijrah[6]). He died in Damascus on a Thursday on the thirteenth day of the lunar month of Rajab in the year 751 after the Hijrah (or AH). Judges, notables and large crowds attended his funeral. He died when he was sixty years old.
    Ibn Qayyim al-Jauziyyah was known by this name because his father, Abu Bakr, was the Qayyim or supervisor of the school known by the name, Al-Jauziyyah, in Damascus. Abu Bakr’s children and grandchildren were known as the children of the Qayyim of al-Jauziyyah for generations after that. Al-Jauziyyah was built by Mu`hyi ad-Din ibn al-‘Hafidh Ya`hya ibn Al-Jauzi; its building finished in the year 652 AH[7]. In the year 1327 AH, it was turned to a courthouse. Al-Jauziyyah was burned during the Syrian revolution against France, during its occupation of Syria in the early part of the twentieth century.

    Ibn al-Qayyim was born in the village of Zur`, which, as we stated, is located in the area of `Horan, a fertile area close to Damascus. Later on, he transferred to Damascus and learned from its scholars. He was raised in a house of knowledge and virtue and began his education with his father, who died in 723 AH. Ibn al-Qayyim was a sea of all types of knowledge, especially knowledge of the religion and the Arabic Language. All those who wrote biographies of ibn al-Qayyim testified to his vast knowledge in the Sunnah, Fiqh, Arabic Language, `Hadith, as well as, being a scholar of healing through divine medicine. He authored many beneficial books with his beautiful handwriting. He had a vast collection of books authored by the scholars of the Salaf[8] and later generations. He had an exceptional standard of character. He was neither envious, nor harmed anyone, nor felt rage or hatred against anyone. He taught at the school known by, ‘as-Sadriyyah’, and led the prayer at al-Jauziyyah.
    Ibn al-Qayyim was also known for being an exalted worshipper of Allah, as he used to spend a good part of the night in Qiyam –voluntary prayer. His prayer was lengthy and full of devotion, while perfecting its Ruku’ and Sujud. His conduct was exemplary and he was known for having a pure heart. He repented often to Allah (سُبحانَهُ وتَعالى) and invoked Him for forgiveness, prompting one of his students, Imam ibn Kathir, to state, “I do not know of anyone who is a more active worshipper than he is!” When he performed Hajj, the people of Makkah were astonished at the tremendous devotion in which ibn al-Qayyim performed acts of worship and rituals of `Hajj, such as Tawaf (circumambulating) the Ka`bah in Makkah.
    Among ibn al-Qayyim’s best qualities was that he dedicated his life, from the time he met his Shaikh, Shaikh al-Islam, ibn Taimiyyah, until the end defending the Sunnah against all innovations in the religion, with regards to the creed and practical aspects. He called to implementing the Sunnah and discarding Taqlid, which pertains to imitating the statements and opinions of people without relying on evidence contained in the Qur’an and Sunnah. He dedicated his efforts to invalidating and exposing the deviant practices and creeds of the misguided Sufi sects, which rely on innovation as their tool of destruction against Islam.
    Ibn al-Qayyim met ibn Taimiyyah in the year 712 AH and remained with him the rest of his life. He became ibn Taimiyyah’s student, even though he was a scholar in his own right and shared with him the responsibility of carrying and defending the Sunnah and its knowledge, until ibn Taimiyyah died in 728 AH. Ibn al-Qayyim remained truthful to this Da`wah (call) and asserted in a poem that through the efforts of ibn Taimiyyah, Allah (سُبحانَهُ وتَعالى) permitted him to go back to the way of as-Salaf As-Sali`h.
    Ibn al-Qayyim was impressed by ibn Taimiyyah’s style of writing and imitated it, while defending the true religion against deviant sects. This is why ibn al-Qayyim was called, ‘The Second Shaikh al-Islam’.
    When ibn al-Qayyim defended the Sunnah against the people of Bid`ah[9], he would first read what those sects believed and then refute their creeds and statements, relying on the Qur’an and authentic Sunnah.
    When he researched a subject, ibn al-Qayyim would refer to the text of the Qur’an and Sunnah and derive the various rulings of the religion using them as the resource of knowledge. He would often mention several evidences to support a certain ruling. He would also mention the opinions and statements from the scholars of previous generations and sometimes would support their statements by relying on the various evidences he collected from the Qur’an and Sunnah. When refuting a statement, he would mention his evidence, as well as, the evidence of those, who did not agree with him, then would refute them.
    The resources of knowledge that ibn al-Qayyim relied on were the Qur’an, the Sunnah and the Ijmaa`[10], if he did not know of anyone who disagreed with it with regards to a certain ruling. Next, he would rely on the Fatwa or the religious opinion or decree of the companion, if there were no other companions who contradicted his Fatwa. He would then rely on the Fatwa of the successive generation that came after the generation of the companions (at-Tabi`un). He would then rely on Qiyas[11].
    Furthermore, ibn al-Qayyim would not show an inclination towards or preference for any Madh-hab (school of thought), such as the ‘Hanafi, Maliki, Shafii or ‘Hanbali Madhhabs, which are attributed to Imams Abu ‘Hanifah An-Nu`man, Malik ibn Anas, Ash-Shafii and Ahmad ibn ‘Hanbal. Ibn al-Qayyim called for Ijtihad, by those qualified to use this method, and firmly defended the Aqeedah (Creed) and the way as-Salaf as-Sali`h understood, practiced and conveyed the religion. He used a highly eloquent and persuasive style of writing to convey his knowledge.
    Many students who later became scholars of knowledge in their own right learned from ibn al-Qayyim. His knowledge, teachings and books are still used today as a major resource of authentic knowledge by all those who are dedicated students of religious knowledge.
    Scholars Praise the Good Qualities and Tremendous Knowledge of ibn al-Qayyim
    Al-Qhadhi (Judge) Burhan ad-Din az-Zur`ii stated that during his time, there was not a more knowledgeable scholar than ibn al-Qayyim. The known scholar ibn Rajab al-‘Hanbali said that ibn al-Qayyim learned the ‘Hanbali Madhhab and learned with Taqi ad-Din ibn Taimiyyah, becoming proficient in all kinds of Islamic knowledge. Also, the scholar of `Hadith and historian Imam adh-Dhahabi stated that ibn al-Qayyim was proficient in `Hadith, Fiqh and the Arabic Language. Shaikh Jamal ad-Din Taghri Bardi stated that ibn al-Qayyim was excellent at several aspects of knowledge, such as Tafsir, Fiqh, Arabic Language and grammar, `Hadith, Usul al-Fiqh, and so forth.
    Several other scholars, such as ash-Shaukani and as-Suyuti, praised the knowledge of ibn al-Qayyim. One of his famous students, Imam ibn Kathir who wrote the famous Tafsir (explanation) of the Qur’an said about him, “He heard narration of `Hadith and was proficient in the religion in various aspects of knowledge, especially Tafsir, `Hadith and the Qur’an and Sunnah. When Shaikh al-Islam ibn Taimiyyah returned from his trip to Egypt in 712 AH, ibn al-Qayyim learned from him until ibn Taimiyyah died. Ibn al-Qayyim collected vast knowledge from ibn Taimiyyah, adding to the knowledge that he collected before. He became authoritative in various aspects of knowledge because of what he learned, which was substantial. Even though ibn al-Qayyim became a famous scholar, teacher and author in his lifetime, he was uniquely active by day and night collecting more knowledge and invoking Allah (سُبحانَهُ وتَعالى) and supplicating to Him.”
    Ibn al-Qayyim suffered oppression, like all reformers before him. He conveyed the true Islamic knowledge fearing none, except Allah (سُبحانَهُ وتَعالى) and supported his Shaikh, Imam ibn Taimiyyah, in his struggle against Bid`ah and deviant sects and creeds. When ibn Taimiyyah was sent to prison by unjust rulers, ibn al-Qayyim was jailed, along with him.
    In the last term in jail, ibn al-Qayyim was kept away from Shaikh al-Islam, ibn Taimiyyah, who died soon after. Ibn al-Qayyim was released from jail after ibn Taimiyyah died; most of the population of Damascus attended ibn Taimiyyah’s funeral and they grieved for their tremendous loss.
    Surely, there is a difference between the funerals held for the scholars of Sunnah and those held for the scholars of Bid`ah and deviation. For instance, around two million people attended the funeral of Imam Ahmad ibn `Hanbal when he died in Baghdad. At that time, Ahmad was supported by the Caliph and loved by people. Also, Baghdad was the largest city in the world. When ibn Taimiyyah died, Damascus was not a very large town.
    Therefore, when sixty thousand men, women and children attend someone’s funeral –like ibn Taimiyyah’s funeral- in Damascus during that time, this means that most of its population attended that funeral. Of course, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal was by no means less in knowledge, scholarly status and level than ibn Taimiyyah. Further, Imam Ahmad ibn `Hanbal was blessed and elevated in honor and grade, by taking the tremendous stance he took, in defense of the true Islamic Creed. This is why he was rightfully called, Imamu Ahli as-Sunnah. They were brothers and Imams who defended the true Islamic Faith and raised high the flag of the Sunnah. How can we reward them for their efforts and preserving the religion of our Prophet, Muhammad, peace be on him, as fresh as the day it was revealed to him?
    All what we can say is repeat what Allah (سُبحانَهُ وتَعالى) said in the Qur’an,

    وَالَّذِينَ جَاءُوا مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِالإِيمَانِ وَلاَ تَجْعَلْ فِي قُلُوبِنَا غِلاَّ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ رَءُوفٌ رَحِيم

    (And those who came after them say: “Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in Faith, and put not in our hearts any hatred against those who have believed. Our Lord! Youare indeed full of kindness, Most Merciful.)[12]
    Ibn Rajab al-‘Hanbali said, “Ibn al-Qayyim was jailed several times, some of them at the same time with ibn Taimiyyah. The last time, they were incarcerated in separate rooms in a castle[13].”




    Teachers of Ibn al-Qayyim


    Ibn al-Qayyim learned with many teachers among them his father, Abu Bakr ibn Ayyub. He also learned knowledge of `Hadith with Abu Bakr Abdul Da-im, Arabic Language with Abu Abdullah ibn Abi al-Fat`h and Fiqh with Muhammad Safi ad-Din al-Hindi.
    As we stated, ibn al-Qayyim learned with ibn Taimiyyah and benefited from his tremendous knowledge in the areas of Tafsir[14], `Hadith, Fiqh, Usul[15], inheritance[16] and Creed. He was his devoted student for approximately sixteen years.
    Among ibn al-Qayyim’s teachers were ibn Maktum, ‘Ala ad-Din al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Abu al-Fat`h, Ayyub ibn al-Kamal, Judge Badr ad-Din ibn Jama`ah and Abu al-Fat’h al-Ba`albaki. May Allah (سُبحانَهُ وتَعالى) grant them all His Mercy.
    Students of ibn al-Qayyim
    Ibn al-Qayyim’s students included an impressive list of Imams of knowledge, such as ibn Kathir, ibn Rajab al-‘Hanbali, ibn Qudamah al-Maqdisi, al-Fairuzabadi, who wrote the famous Arabic dictionary known by, al-Qamus al-Mu`hit, and so forth. Ibn al-Qayyim’ s two children, Ibrahim and Musharraf ad-Din, whose name was Abdullah, also learned with him.
    Books that ibn al-Qayyim Authored


    Ibn al-Qayyim authored a large number of books, such as:
    1. Ijtima` al-Juyush al-Islamiyyah `Ala Ghazw al-Mu'attilah wal-Jahmiyyah.
    2. A`hkamu Ahli adh-Dhimmah.
    3. I'lamu al-Muwaqqi`in `an Rabbi al-`Alamin.
    4. Ighathatu al-Lahfan min Masa-id ash-Shaitan.
    5. Al-Fawa-id.
    6. Tahdheebu Sunani Abi Dawood.
    7. Madariju as-Salikin.
    8. Ad-Da-o-wad-Dawa.
    9. ‘Uddatu as-Sabirin wa-Dhakheeratu ash-Shakirin.
    10. Hidayatu al-`Hayara fi Ajwibati an-Nasara.
    Ibn al-Qayyim authored many other books about the various aspects of knowledge, some of them are still manuscripts. May Allah (سُبحانَهُ وتَعالى) reward him with His Mercy and Pleasure.
    This biography of Imam ibn al-Qayyim is somewhat based on the biography that Shaikh Abdul Hadi Wahbeh and Shaikh `Irfan Abdul Qadir `Hassunah collected from various resources of biography of famous imams, such as ad-Durar al-Kaminah, al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah, Shadharat adh-Dhahab, and an-Nujumu az-Zahirah.
    I attest that I benefited to a good extent from the Ta’hqiq, that is, criticism of the narrations of `Hadith, that Shaikh Abdul Hadi Wahby collected, in cooperation with Mu-assasat ar-Rayyan, from the books on `Hadith that the Imam of Ahlu as-Sunnah in our time, Nasir ad-Din al-Albani, has authored. May Allah (سُبحانَهُ وتَعالى) grant His mercy to al-Albani for the tremendous service he offered to Islam and the knowledge of `Hadith, in specific, for our time.
    I also benefited, to a lesser extent, from the Ta`hqiq by Shaikh `Irfan Abdul Qadir `Hassunah on, Zadul-Ma`ad, published by Daru al-Fikr. I also compiled Ta`hqiq and commentary from several more books and resources of knowledge, including the major resources I will soon mention, Allah willing[17].

    [[1]][‘Abu’, means, ‘father of’; it is also a title, used for respect, even if one does not have offspring. For example, the Mother of the Believers Aishah (رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهَا), the Prophet’s wife, was called, ‘Um Abdullah’, even though she never gave birth to a child. ‘Um’, means, ‘mother of’. Usually, the father and the mother are given titles of ‘Abu’ and ‘Um’ respectively, after their eldest son.]

    [[2]][Which was ibn al-Qayyim’s nickname].

    [[3]][Muhammad was ibn al-Qayyim’s given name].

    [[4]][‘Ibn’, means, ‘son of’, while, ‘Bint’, means, ‘daughter of’.]

    [[5]][From the town of Zur’, a village near Damascus; in the present time, it is called Azru’].

    [[6]][Migration of the Prophet peace be on him (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) from Makkah to Madinah in the year 623 CE].

    [[7]][After the Hijrah].

    [[8]][‘As-Salaf as-Sali’h’, is in reference to the companions of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) and the second and third generations of Islam].

    [[9]][Innovation in the religion].

    [[10]][‘Ijma`’ pertains to the consensus of the companions, as Imam ibn `Hazm stated. Or, it pertains to the consensus of Muslim Scholars, including the companions, of course.]

    [[11]][‘Qiyas’, pertains to researching the Qur’an and Sunnah and suggesting a ruling with regards to a certain matter of the religion that does not have a definite ruling in the Quran and Sunnah or Ijmaa].

    [[12]][59:10]
    [[13]][Which was a jail during that time].

    [[14]][Meanings of the Qur’an].

    [[15]][Major resources of Islamic Knowledge, or rulings of the Islamic Jurisprudence].

    [[16]][Or, ‘`Ilm al-Fara-idh’].

    [[17]][For more information about ibn al-Qayyim, refer to the following resources: an-Nujumu az-Zahirah, 10:249, al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah, 14:234-235, al-Badr at-Tali’, 2:142-146, ad-Durar al-Kaminah, 4:21-23, Shadharatu adh-Dhahab, 6:168-170, etc.]

  2. Andalusian
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    Andalusian Peace

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    :salam2:
    :jazaak:
    Also ibn Qayyim described very well the part of the heart, as we know them today in severals fields, and he described too the relation between Iman true faith of good believers with heart than others...
    :wasalam:
  3. ibnAbdullah87
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    ibnAbdullah87 Junior Member

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    He was the doctor of the heart
  4. Andalusian
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    Andalusian Peace

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    :salam2:
    very well said. Yes he was a doctor of the heart [spirituality&physically i.e. (anatomy)]
    What's amazing that he described all the part of the heart (its anatomy) from Ahadith of the Prophet :saw:
    it's like ibn Qayyim owned equipments that doctors have nowadays.
    :wasalam:
  5. alkathiri
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    alkathiri As-Shafaa'i(Brother)

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    :salam2:

    A brother gave to me a book by this great scholar. Very true, he was the doctor of the heart. He wrote books like How to cure the heart, which is a book about tasawuf. But nowadays, the word tasawuf has been tainted. People think tasawuf is all about Nasqabandi , Chisti but nope thats not correct. Some sufism is allowed as long as they abide by the sharia just like what Sheikh Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahab says.

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