Khawarij - The Deviated Sect

Discussion in 'Deviated Sects, And Callers' started by hussain.mahammed, Oct 24, 2007.

  1. hussain.mahammed
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    Narrated from Ibn Abbaas, He said: Hawarij came together in a place with hatred and agreed upon to oppose (by fighting) with Ali (ra) and the Prophet (saw)’s ashab (companions) who stayed with Ali (ra). He {Ibn Abbas (ra)} said: A man came and he started saying O Amir al Muminun (chief) this group will oppose you. Ali (ra) replied: Leave them alone until they come and fight with me. For they will (fight with me).

    One day I told Ali (ra) O Amir al Muminun delay the pray so I will not miss, and meantime I will go and talk to them. He (Ali) said: I (Ali) fear they will hurt you. I (Ibn Abbas) replied: No, They won’t hurt me insha’Allah. I am a kind man who is gentle towards everyone and I never hurt anyone.

    Ibn Abbaas (ra) said: I wore one of the most beautiful cloths from this yamamniyya (a kind of fabric). (Abu Zammal added: Ibni Abbas was a beautiful, handsome man) Ibn Abbaas said: I went the place they were at. They were resting hence it was noon. I’ve never seen anyone with strong effort in ibadaah as them. Their hands were like the knees of camels. (Due to doing so much ibadaah their hands got marked) The mark of sujuud (worship) could be seen on their faces easily. They had washed cloths on. Their faces were thin due to lack of sleep.

    When I arrived there they asked me: “What about this cloth you are wearing?” Ibn Abbaas: “Do you criticize me with this? I saw better one on the prophet (saw) and then this verse revealed: “Say: Who hath forbidden the beautiful (gifts) of Allah, which He hath produced for His servants, and the things, clean and pure, (which He hath provided) for sustenance?”” (al-Araf 32)

    “Why did you come here?” they asked. Ibn Abbaas replied: “I came here to mention to you about the people who were the companions of the prophet (saw), and the ones whom the verses of Qur’an was revealed on, none of them are here with you.” Some of them said: “Do not argue with Quraish. Allah (swt) stated: “They are a contentious people”” (az-Zukhruf 58) Two or three of them said: “Talk to them.”

    Ibn Abbaas said: “What is your problem with the cousin and the son in-law of the prophet (saw), and the first one to have Eemaan, and the one whom the companions stand with?” They said: “We opposed him with three things.” Ibn Abbaas said: “What are they?”

    They replied: “The first is that He obtained an arbitrator in the deen of Allah. Whereas Allah (swt) stated: “the command is for none but Allah.” (Yusuf 40). After Allah’s statement what will be left for the people to rule on?” “What else?” said Ibn Abbaas. They replied: “Ali fought with some people but he did not take any slave nor spoil (ganimaah). If the ones whom he fought with were kaafir their merchandise should be permissible for Ali. (He should take their goods as capture) If they were Muslims, it was not permissible to shed their blood.” “What else?” said Ibn Abbaas. They replied: “He disclaimed from the title of being Amir al Muminun. If he is not Amir al Muminun then he is Amir al kafirun.” “Do you have any other claim?” asked Ibn Abbaas. They said: “These are enough for us.”

    Ibn Abbaas: “If I provide evidence from Allah’s (swt) muhkam book and His (swt) prophets’ (saw) sunnah would you change your claims?” They replied: “Yes” Ibn Abbaas continued: “About your opinion of mankind’s ruling in the deen of Allah (swt); Allah (swt) stated: from ““O ye who believe! Kill not game while in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb...” to “as adjudged by two just men among you” (al-Maeda 95) regarding a wife and her husband Allah (swt) stated: “If ye fear a breach between them twain, appoint (two) arbiters, one from his family, and the other from hers” (an-Nisa 35) Now, I am asking you with administration to you with the oath of Allah (swt): Is it better to give ruling to stop peoples’ killing each other, to bring them together, or to give ruling on its worth will be only a quarter of a dirham a rabbit; and a few women? Moreover you know that if He (swt) wished He (swt) would give the hukm (ruling) and He (swt) would not leave the hukm for the mankind.” They said: “Wallahi {oath of the name of Allah (swt)} to stop peoples’ killing each other, to bring them together is better.”

    Ibn Abbaas continued: “About your opinion of Ali fought with the people but he did not take any slave nor ganimaah. Tell me do you swear at your mother Aisha (raa) or do you render permissible for her what is permissible for other women? If so you are kaafir. If you say she (raa) is not the mother of muminun then you are kafir and out of the fold of Islam. Allah (swt) stated: “The Prophet is closer to the Believers than their own selves, and his wives are their mothers.” (al-Ahzab 6) It is shown that you are stumble in the middle of two heresies whichever you choose. Now do you back down from your opinions?” They looked each other and said: “Wallahi yes.”

    Ibn Abbaas continued: “About your opinion of His (ra) disclaiming from the title of being Amir al Muminun; I am going to tell you something you will like. On the day of Hudaibiyya the prophet (saw) invited the Quraish to write an agreement. He (saw) would correspond with Suhayl b Amr and Abu Sufyan. The prophet (saw) said: O Ali (ra) write! This is the ruling of Allahs’ (saw) prophet Muhammad (saw). They said: Wallahi if we had accepted you as Allahs’ (swt) messenger we would not keep you away from Ka’aba and we would not fight against you. Write Muhammad b. Abdullah (saw) instead. The prophet (saw) replied: Even if you contradict with me about this matter Wallahi I am truly His (swt) prophet. Write O Ali! Muhammad b Abdullah. Prophet (saw) was on the better rank than Ali (ra) He (saw) accepted not to be mentioned as a prophet, and this will not take him out of fold of prophets. Now do you back down from this opinion too?” They said: “Wallahi yes (we backed down).”

    Note:
    After this 2000 of them backed down alhamduli'Allah and 4000 of them were killed as a deviant.

    Ibn Abbas’s (Ra) debate with Harooreyya (Hawarej)
    From Abdurrazzak, Abu Nuaym, Bayhakee and others
    Darultawhid
  2. hussain.mahammed
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    The Khawaarij are those who revolted (i.e. made khurooj) against the ruler during the last part of ‘Uthmaan’s Khilaafah. Their revolting resulted in the murder of ‘Uthmaan (radyAllaahu ‘anhu).

    Then their evil increased during the Khilaafah of ‘Alee (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) and they rebelled against him, declaring him to be a disbeliever. They also pronounced disbelief on the Companions, because they would not agree with them in their (false) beliefs. So they ruled that all those who opposed them in their views were disbelievers. As a result, they pronounced disbelief on the best amongst creation - the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam). Why was this (?) - because they did not agree with them on their misguidance and disbelief.

    Their Beliefs: They do not adhere to the Sunnah and the Jamaa’ah, nor do they obey the leader. Rather, they hold rebelling against him and renouncing allegiance to him to be from the Religion,[1] contrary to the advice of Allaah’s Messenger of giving obedience and contrary to what Allaah has commanded in His saying: "Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger and those in authority amongst you." [Surah An-Nisaa: 59]

    So Allaah made obeying the ruler part of the Religion, and the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) made obeying the ruler part of the Religion, as is found in his saying: "I counsel you to have Taqwaa of Allaah and to hear and obey, even if a slave should take command over you. For indeed, whosoever lives amongst you, will see many differences..." [2]

    So obeying the Muslim Ruler is part of the Religion (of Islaam). But the Khawarij say: "No, we are free (from this)." This is the way of insurrection and rebellion today!

    So the Khawaarij are those who seek to cause division to the main unified body of Muslims and to revolt against the leaders - and there is disobedience to Allaah and His Messenger in doing this. They also hold that the person who commits a major sin is a disbeliever.

    So someone that commits a major sin - a fornicator, a thief, one who drinks alcohol, for example - are all considered disbelievers by them. On the contrary, Ahl-us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah hold such a person as a "Muslim with deficient Eemaan"[3] and they call him a "sinner in the Religion." So he is a "believer" due to his Eemaan, while being a "sinner" due to his major sin. This is because nothing expels one out of the fold of Islaam except Shirk and the well-known things that nullify one’s Islaam. As for the sins that are below Shirk, then they do not cause one to be expelled from the fold of Eemaan, even if they are major sins. Allaah says: "Verily Allaah does not forgive that Shirk (association of partners in worship) be committed with Him, but he forgives what is lower than that (of sins) to whom He wills." [Surah an-Nisaa: 48, 116]

    The Khawaarij say: "The one who commits a major sin is a disbeliever, he will not be forgiven and he will reside in the Hellfire forever." And this is contrary to what is stated in the Qur’aan. The reason for this is because they do not have understanding (of the Religion).

    Take note that the cause for their falling into these (false beliefs) was their lack of knowledge. This is because they are a people intense in their worship, prayer, fasting and recitation of the Qur’aan. And they have a strong fervor for the Religion, but they do not have knowledge - and this is the problem.

    So going to great lengths and exerting oneself in piety and worship must be accompanied by knowledge and understanding of the Religion. This is why the Prophet (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) described them to his Companions in the following manner: That the Companions would look down upon their own prayer as compared to their prayer and on their worship as compared to their worship. Then he said: "They will shoot out from the Religion just as the arrow shoots out from a hunted game"[4] - in spite of their worship and in spite of their righteousness and their praying Tahajjud at night.

    So because their exertion was not based upon a correct foundation, nor upon authentic knowledge, it became a misguidance, a plague and evil upon them and upon the ummah.

    And furthermore, it is not known from the Khawaarij - for one day - that they fought against the disbelievers ever! Instead, they only fight with the Muslims, as the Prophet (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: "And they will kill the People of Islaam, while leaving alone the people of Awthaan (idols)." [5]

    So we have not come to know in the history of the Khawaarij that one day they fought against the disbelievers and polytheists. Rather, they are always fighting against the Muslims. They killed ‘Uthmaan and they killed ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib. They killed Az-Zubayr Ibn-ul-‘Awaam and killed the best of the Companions. And they have not stopped killing Muslims.

    And this is all due to their ignorance of the Religion of Allaah. But in spite of this, they had piety and worship, but since these were not founded upon authentic knowledge, it became a disease on them. This is why the great scholar, Ibn Al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said in his description of them:

    "They have textual evidences, which they fall short of in understanding
    So they have been given shortness in knowledge." [6]


    So they use texts as evidences but yet they do not comprehend them. They use as evidence texts from the Qur’aan and the Sunnah concerning the threat for committing sins, but they do not comprehend their meanings. They do not refer them back to the other texts, in which there is found a promise for forgiveness and the acceptance of repentance for those whose sins are less than Shirk. So they accept one part and leave off another part - all of this due to their ignorance.

    So having an over-protective love for the Religion and enthusiasm are not sufficient. They must be founded upon knowledge and understanding of Allaah’s Religion. This is so that they can be produced from knowledge and so that they can be put in their proper place.

    So over-protective love for the Religion is good and enthusiasm is good, but they must be guided and directed by the following of the Qur’aan and the Sunnah.

    There is no one with more precedence in the Religion nor more sincere to the Muslims than the Sahaabah (the Comapnions), but in spite of that, they fought against the Khawaarij due to their danger and their evil.

    ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib fought against them such that he slaughtered them with the worst of killings in the incident of Nahrawaan. By doing this, he realized what the Prophet (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) informed us of in that the Prophet (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) gave the good tidings to the one who killed them of goodness and Paradise. So ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib, he was the one who killed them - so he received this good tiding from Allaah’s Messenger.[7] He killed them in order to prevent their evil from befalling the Muslims.

    It is an obligation on the Muslims in every generation, if they should become aware of the existence of this wicked methodology, that they remedy it by calling to the Way of Allaah first and educating the people about it. But if they do not accept this, then they must fight against them in order to prevent their evil.

    ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) sent his cousin, ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Abbaas - the Habr (scholar) of the ummah and the Turjumaan (Interpreter) of the Qur’aan - to them. So he debated with them and six thousand amongst them repented and returned back, but many remained behind and did not repent. So at this point, the Ameer-ul-Mu’mineen, ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib, along with the Sahaabah, fought against them. This was in order to prevent their evil and harm from befalling the Muslims.

    So this is the sect known as Al-Khawaarij and their beliefs.

    Footnotes:

    [1] In our time, perhaps the one who believes that we must hear and obey the leaders in matters that are not sinful, are labeled as government agents or kiss-ups or gullible simpletons! So you will see them attacking the leaders and exposing their faults to the public from the mimbars and in their gatherings. And Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: "Whoever desires to advise the sultaan (authority) about a matter, then he must not expose it in public, but rather he should take him by his hand and go in privacy with him. So if he accepts (the advice) then that is (reward) for him, and if he doesn’t (accept) then he has conveyed what will be held against him." Reported by Ahmad (3/404) from the narration of ‘Iyyaad bin Ghanam (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) Ibn Abee ‘Aasim also reported it in his book As-Sunnah (2/522).

    And when the leader bars one of them from speaking in public gatherings, they rally together and go out in demonstrations, thinking - out of ignorance on their part - that barring someone from speaking or putting someone in jail justifies rebellion! Did they not hear the Prophet’s statement found in the narration of ‘Awf bin Maalik Al-Ashja’ee (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) in Saheeh Muslim (1855): "...No, so long as they establish the prayer." And in the hadeeth of ‘Ubaadah bin As-Saamit (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) found in the two Saheeh Collections, the Prophet said: "...unless you see clear and open disbelief, by which you will have proof before Allaah in the matter." This was his (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) response to the Companions when they questioned him, seeking permission to fight against the oppressive leaders.

    Do they not know how long Imaam Ahmad remained locked up in prison? And where did Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah die?! Wasn’t Imaam Ahmad put in jail for several years and whipped because he would not say that the Qur’aan was created? So why then did he not order the people to revolt against the Khaleefah? Don’t they know that Shaikh-ul-Islaam stayed in prison for more than two years and died while in it? Why did he not command the people to revolt against the leader? And on top of this, these scholars had a high position in terms of virtue and knowledge, so what about those who are less than them??? Indeed these ideologies and actions did not come to us except after the youth began to take their knowledge from such and such modern-day thinker and from such and such literary poet and from such and such Islamic writer, abandoning the scholars and placing their books behind their backs to be forgotten! Wa laa hawla wa laa quwata ilaa billaah!

    [2] An authentic hadeeth reported by Ahmad, Ibn Maajah, At-Tirmidhee, Al-Haakim and many others [Abridged by the translator].

    [3] Even if they commit a sin thinking it to be trivial (Istikhfaaf), they do not commit disbelief so long as they do not make it lawful (Istihlaal), contrary to what some of them say: That a person who commits a sin thinking it to be trivial, commits disbelief that takes him out from the Religion. This statement is the essence of the beliefs of the Khawaarij as our Shaikh, Shaikh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez Ibn ‘Abdillaah Bin Baaz said when he was asked about it in Taa’if in 1415H.

    [4] Part of a long hadeeth reported by Ahmad, Muslim, Al-Bukhaaree and others from several of the Companions [Abridged by the translator]

    [5] Part of a long hadeeth reported by Ahmad, Muslim, Al-Bukhaaree and others [Abridged by the translator]

    [6] Nooniyyah of Ibn Al-Qayyim (pg. 97)

    [7] Al-Bukhaaree reported in his Saheeh (6930), Muslim in his Saheeh (1066), Ahmad in his Musnad (1/113), Ibn Abee ‘Aasim in his As-Sunnah (914) and ‘Abdullaah bin al-Imaam Ahmad in his As-Sunnah (1487): From ‘Alee (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: "I heard Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) say: ‘Towards the last days, a people will emerge who will be young in age and have foolish ideas. They will speak with the best speech of the creatures. Their Eemaan will not go past their throats. So wherever you encounter them, kill them, for indeed there will be a reward for the one who kills them on the Day of Judgement.’"

    After narrating a hadeeth about the Khawaarij and their signs, Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudree (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) said: "Twenty or more than twenty of the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger narrated to me that ‘Alee was in charge of killing them." Reported by Ahmad in his Musnad (3/33) and his son ‘Abdullaah in As-Sunnah (1512).

    A Glimpse into the Khawaarij
    By Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan
    SOURCE: Lamha ‘an-il-Firaq-id-Daalah (pg. 31-37) w/ notes by Shabbaab Ar-Raajihee
  3. hussain.mahammed
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    The original Khawarij were the descendents of a man named Dhul-Khuwaysarah, as prophesied by the Messenger of Allah (may Allah raise his rank and grant him peace). They are the sect that were responsible for the killing of many of his companions. They differ from the followers of The Prophet (pbuh) and his companions in that they do not restrict themselves to the understanding which The Prophet (pbuh) and His Companions had when applying texts related to takfir (excommunication). Hence, they use textual evidences, but fall short in understanding them. This is why the likes of Osama Bin Laden make unrestricted takfir.

    Regarding the Khawarij, Shaykh Salih al-Fawzan said: "So having enthusiasm and an over-protective love for the religion is not sufficient. They must be founded upon knowledge and understanding of Allah's religion." [Shaykh Salih al-Fawzan, Lamha 'an-il-Firaqid-Daallah]

    The very first sect to split away from the main body of the Muslims. They will remain in the Ummah till they fight alongside Dajjal against this Ummah.

    The Khawaarij are a sect which came out to kill 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib (radhi-yallaahu 'anhu) concerning the issue of Ruling/ leadership.

    The Khawarij believed that Mu`awiyah (may Allah be pleased with him) had committed kufr by fighting against the Caliph, and that `Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) had also committed kufr by agreeing to an arbitration. They were a strictly religious group who believed that any sin was kufr. They eventually fragmented into around twenty sects, each accusing the others of kufr. The Ibadiyyah is one of these sects, and remnants of them can be found to this day in Oman and North Africa.

    Their chosen path was one of distancing themselves from 'Uthmaan ibn 'Affaan and 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib (radhi-yallaahu 'anhumaa), and condoning walking out against the Imaam (leader) and seeking to overthrow him if he opposes the Sunnah. Likewise, they would make takfeer (render someone a kaafir) of anyone who commits a major sin and claim that he will forever abide in the Fire of Hell.

    Ash-Shahrastaanee defines them as: ((Anyone who walks out against (seeking to overthrow) the true appointed Imaam (leader) upon whose leadership the Jamaa'ah is in agreement is called a Khaarijee. This is the case, despite whether the walking out (against the Imaam) occurred in the days of the Rightly- Guided Khulafaa. or other than them from the Taabi'een)).

    And some of the pious predecessors used to call all those who practiced Islaam based upon their desires as Khawaarij.

    The Khawaarij were the first sect to appear in the history of Islaam, splitting up into more than 20 different sub-sects. However, it is said that the major sub-sects of the Khawaarij are seven:

    1) al-Mahkamah al-Oolaa;
    2) al-Azaariqah;
    3) an-Najdaat;
    4) ath-Thu'aalabah;
    5) al-'Ajaaridah;
    6) al-Abaadhiyyah;
    7) as-Safriyyah.

    Some of the other sub-sects include:

    1) al-Ibaathiyyah;
    2) ash-Shamraakhiyyah;
    3) as-Salaydiyyah;
    4) as-Sirriyyah;
    5) al-'Azriyyah;
    6) al-'Ajradiyyah;
    7) ash-Shakkiyyah;
    8) al-Fadhaliyyah;
    9) al-Bayhasiyyah;
    10) al-'Atwiyyah;
    11) al-Fadeekiyyah;
    12) al-Ja'diyyah;
    13) ash-Shaybiyyah;
    14) al-Hurooriyyah;
    15) al-Khamariyyah;
    16) ash-Sharaah.

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