Morals and Manners Notes - Ibn Hazm Al Andalusi

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    Morals and Manners Notes -
    Ibn Hazm Al Andalusi





    IslamicNetwork






    I'm going through Ibn Hazm's book on Morals and Behaviour. I'll post points from it, plus from other various sources as well, inshaa Allaah
    .
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    Ibn Hazm says:

    10. There is no nobility in anyone who lacks faith.


    Notes:


    * This reminds me of the Advice of Hatim al-Asamm:

    The fourth is that I looked at Allah's creatures and saw that all of them set much store by property, reputation, honour, and lineage. I examined those things and found them to be nothing. Then I looked at the words of the Almighty,

    'The noblest among you in Allah's sight is the most godfearing of you.' (49:13)


    So I set much store by fear of Allah so that I might be noble in His sight.

    * This is also reminding of those from Bani Israel who asked their Prophet to ask Allah to give them a leader to lead them into Jihad. Thereafter, they complained:

    وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ قَدْ بَعَثَ لَكُمْ طَالُوتَ مَلِكاً قَالُوَاْ أَنَّى يَكُونُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ عَلَيْنَا وَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِالْمُلْكِ مِنْهُ وَلَمْ يُؤْتَ سَعَةً مِّنَ الْمَالِ قَالَ إِنَّ اللّهَ اصْطَفَاهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَزَادَهُ بَسْطَةً فِي الْعِلْمِ وَالْجِسْمِ وَاللّهُ يُؤْتِي مُلْكَهُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَاللّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
    "How can he be a king over us when we are better fitted than him for the kingdom, and he has not been given enough wealth." He said: "Verily, Allah has chosen him above you and has increased him abundantly in knowledge and stature. And Allah grants His Kingdom to whom He wills. And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower."

    This seems to be a reoccuring trait amongst Bani Israel...that nobility is with those with an abundance of wealth. Muslims seem more susceptible to believing that nobility comes from blood-lines (caste systems etc).


    247. And their Prophet (Samuel) said to them, "Indeed Allah has appointed Talut (Saul) as a king over you." They said,
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    Ibn Hazm says:

    7. Thus the only reason that someone chases after riches is to dispel the anguish of poverty. The only reason that someone seeks fame is to dispel the anxiety of seeing someone else outdo him. The only reason that someone chases after pleasures is to dispel the anxiety of missing them. The only reason someone chases after knowledge is to dispel the anxiety of being ignorant about something.

    People enjoy listening to other people’s conversation and gossip only because it dispels the anxiety of being alone and isolated. People eat, drink, make love, wear clothes, play games, build a shelter, mount a horse, go for a walk, only in order to avoid the reverse of all these actions and every other kind of anxiety.

    6. When I had arrived at this great piece of wisdom, when I had discovered this amazing secret, when Allâh the Almighty had opened the eyes of my mind [spirit] to see this great pleasure, I began to search for the way which would truly enable me to dispel anxiety, that precious goal desired by every kind of person, whether ignorant or scholarly, good or evil. I found it in one place alone, in the action of turning towards God the Almighty and Powerful, in pious works performed with an eye to eternity.

    Notes:

    * This is consistent with the fact that, when mentioning the state of the believers, Allah describes that they shall not fear, not do they grieve. They are saved from the anxiety of fear and grief because they have sight and vision of the ultimate result: That the final return is to Allah. Therefore, fear and grief instigated by the world is senseless.

    “Verily, those who say ‘Our Lord is Allah’ then keep themselves upright, the angels descend upon them saying: ‘Do not fear and do not grieve. Hearken to glad tidings of the Paradise that you have been promised’.” [Sûrah Fussilat: 30]
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    Ibn Hazm says:

    212. To distance ourselves from the vanities of the world it should suffice to remember that every night every man alive, in his sleep, forgets everything that worried him during the day, all his fears, all his hopes. He no longer remembers his children or his parents, glory or obscurity, high social responsibilities or unemployment, poverty or riches, nor catastrophes. Such a lesson should be sufficient for a thoughtful person.

    Notes:

    * Sleep is death. It kills off most problems you stress about. When you awake, only the more pressing problems remain. Sleep itself is a blessing - let that not be forgotten. Thank Allah for it, lest He takes it away from you.

    Trust me on this one. I haven't been able to sleep for three days.
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    Ibn Hazm says:


    19. Anyone who feels proud of courage which is not applied in its normal directions, the service of the Almighty God, let him understand that the tiger is braver than him, that the lion, the wolf and the elephant are braver than him.


    20.
    Anyone who glories in his own physical strength, let it be known to him that the mule, the ox and the elephant are physically stronger than him.


    21. Anyone who glories is his ability to carry heavy weights, let it be known to him that the donkey can carry greater weights.


    22. Anyone who glories in his ability to run, let it be known to him that the dog and the hare are faster runners than he.


    23. Anyone who glories in the sound of his voice, let it be known to him that many of the birds have sweeter voices than he, and the sound of the flutes is more exquisite and charming than the sound of his voice.


    How can anyone take pride or satisfaction in qualities in which these animals are superior?


    Notes:

    * None required.
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    Ibn Hazm says:

    175. We used to think that passion was found more often among lively and emotional women. But our experience has shown that this is not the case. Passion is found most often among calm women, as long as their calmness is not the placidity of stupidity.

    Notes:

    * This is supported by the story of Yusuf (as), specifically in how the women cut their hands in awe of the beauty of Yusuf (as), yet the wife of al-Aziz, who loved Prophet Yusuf (as) more, did nothing this extravagant. In fact, she was calm and had complete control of her senses. The reason why this is important is because it is indicative of a profound underlying principle.

    As Allah says in the Qur'an: To Allah applies the highest similitude (16:60). Meaning, the greater lover of Allah will have control over his senses, while the lesser lover of Allah may temporarily lose their senses. This is a direct refutation of Sufis who push themselves to undergo "spiritual intoxication" in order to lose their senses, because in their view, losing your senses out of love of Allah is indicative of piety and wilayah (sainthood). But as Ibn al-Qayyim points out, how can actions similiar to that of fools indicate piety?

    All of this, and more, is better explained in Madarij as-Salikin by Ibn al-Qayyim where he defines the concept of Fana' (annihilation).
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    Ibn Hazm says:

    46. Knowledge no longer exists if one has ignored the attributes of the Almighty Great Creator.

    Notes:

    * You cannot begin to enter the door of knowledge if you haven't recognized that Allah is the most-knowledgable.
    * Recognizing this attribute of Allah leads one to recognize his own ignorance; thus,
    * True knowledge shows you how little you know.
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    The Messenger of Allah said:

    "The believers whose faith is most complete are the best of them in morals." (Ahmad, and at-Tirmidhi verified it).

    Notes:


    * Al-Halimi said: "This saying of the Prophet proves that the best of morals is faith, and the absense of morals is a decrease of faith, and that the believers are differentiated with regards to their level of faith, for some of them are more complete in faith than others.
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    Ibn Hazm says:

    170. The man who is unhappy in love is the one who is racked by a passion for one whom he can keep locked away and with whom he may be united without incurring the wrath of God or the criticism of his fellow-men. All is well when the two lovers agree in loving each other. For love to run its course freely, it is essential that the two do not feel bored, for that is a bad feeling which gives rise to hatred. Perfect love would be if destiny forgot the two lovers while they were enjoying each other. But where could that happen except in Paradise? Only there can love be sure of shelter, for that is the home of everlasting stability. Otherwise, in the world, such feelings are not protected from misfortunes, and we go through life without ever tasting pleasure to the full.

    Notes:

    * I (and prof, undoubtedly) concur.
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    On the subject of that elusive perfect happiness, Ibn Hazm says:

    29. When a man is asleep, he leaves the world and forgets all joy and all sorrow. If he kept his spirit in the same state on waking, he would know perfect happiness.

    Notes:

    * Allah says:

    إِذْ تُصْعِدُونَ وَلاَ تَلْوُونَ عَلَى أحَدٍ وَالرَّسُولُ يَدْعُوكُمْ فِي أُخْرَاكُمْ فَأَثَابَكُمْ غُمَّاً بِغَمٍّ لِّكَيْلاَ تَحْزَنُواْ عَلَى مَا فَاتَكُمْ وَلاَ مَا أَصَابَكُمْ وَاللّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ


    {(And remember) when you ran away (dreadfully) without even casting a side glance at anyone, and the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) was in your rear calling you back. There did Allah give you one distress after another by way of requital to teach you not to grieve for that which had escaped you, nor for that which had befallen you. And Allah is Well*Aware of all that you do} (3:153)

    In arabic, it doesn't quite say "to teach". That's a bit of an embellishment on the side of the translators. The arabic word comes out to "لِّكَيْلاَ" which would translate to "so that they may not...". The لِّ starting the word, per the rules of the arabic language give purpose to the word. Before I confuse myself along with you, it basically means this; the events which took place, took place for the purpose of teaching the companions to not grieve for what escaped them nor for what befell them. That's how important an issue this is.

    * This attitude is one carried by the salaf. It was said that if you had placed a rock of gold in their palms, or a rock of mud, they would react in a similiar fashion. Meaning, they would not get extremely happy for the rock of gold, not increasingly sad for the rock of mud.
    * One could argue that closing the doors to all joy and all sorrow is an exercise in futility for human beings. That may very well be true, however trying to limit these emotions would probably lead to contentment.
    * Contentment is all we can hope for in this world. Paradise, and only paradise, is Dar as-Sa'adah (the abode of happiness).
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    This attitude is one carried by the salaf. It was said that if you had placed a rock of gold in their palms, or a rock of mud, they would react in a similiar fashion. Meaning, they would not get extremely happy for the rock of gold, not increasingly sad for the rock of mud.

    Ali bin Abi Talib is reported to have said, may Allah be pleased with him, “O son of Adam, do not be happy with richness and do not despair of poverty. Do not feel sad during affliction and do not rejoice over prosperity, for just as gold is tried by fire, the pious are tried by affliction. You will not attain what you want except by giving up what you desire, and you will not attain what you aspire to except by enduring patiently what you hate, and exerting yourself in implementing that which has been made compulsory upon you (by Allah).”
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    Ibn Hazm says:

    36. To spread knowledge among those incapable of understanding it would be as harmful as giving honey and sugary confections to someone with a fever, or giving musk and amber to someone with a migraine caused by an excess of bile.

    Notes:

    * The following, is excerpted from Mukhtasir Minhaj al-Qasideen by Imam Ibn Qudamah al-Maqdisi:

    He (rahimahullah) says: "(It is the responsibility of the teacher) to evaluate the power of intellect of his student, and henceforth not burden him with what he cannot understand, or what he cannot conceptualize.

    And it was narrated from the Messenger of Allah that he said, "I have been ordered to speak to the people based upon their level of understanding"...Additionally it was narrated from the Prophet "Address the people with what they know. Would you like for them to ascribe a lie to Allah and His Messenger?"

    Al-Hafidh says, "In this, there is evidence that the unclear should not be mentioned amongst the general masses." This is similiar to the statement of the Messenger of Allah that, "Whenever you address a people with that which is beyond their scope of understanding, except that it acts as a trial (fitnah) for some of them".

    * I guess the best parable I can think of is that, should you teach a child in the 9th grade advanced calculus, chances are, the child would be completely turned off the subject for years to come. Not to mention confused. Should he try to impart what he learnt, no doubt it would consist of groundless information due to his confusion.

    * I've noticed that it is the unequivicol approach of nearly every deviated group to establish their misguidance by addressing the masses with sections of Islamic knowledge which the general public cannot properly, according to the established principles of the religion, decipher.

    * The best approach, and one tradionally supported, is to depend on scholars. The breakdown in society, however, is when the scholars are not properly handling their knowledge. Ibn Qudamah discusses this later in the section. One of the improper use of knowledge from the scholars which he emphasizes upon, is when scholars "sit at the doors of the rulers" as it is an invitation for unnecessary affliction and a danger to the sacred knowledge of this religion.

    Sort of looks like what's happening today, huh? May Allah guide this 'Ummah - Ameen.
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    Ibn Hazm says:

    211. Two kinds of people live a life without care: one kind are extremely worthy of praise, the other kind are extremely worthy of humiliation; those who care nothing for the pleasures of this world and those who care nothing for haya’, modesty.

    * "Among the words people obtained from the First Prophecy are: If you feel no shame, then do as you wish". - The Prophet

    * This hadith has two meanings with scholars. One of them being that if everything you do doesn't, and shouldn't, draw shame, then rejoice and do whatever you wish.

    This is the person of extreme praise. He or she is at a stage where societal judgements of others cannot touch them. They know the truth, they walk the truth, and feel no shame despite what people may say.
    * The other being, if you've lost the concept of feeling shame for disrespectful actions, then do whatever you want, since you're already such a lost person, it doesn't really matter.
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    Ibn Hazm says:

    45. Guard against taking pleasure in any way that will harm your soul and is not required of you by the religious law nor by virtue.
    Notes:

    * The Prophet said "Hell is surrounded by desires" and it is fair to say that Islam generically condemns desires as usually, the desires of our souls are inclined towards evil.
    * Unfortunately, this has led people to the perception that any type of pleasure in this world is starkly condemned by Islam and should always be kept from. Should they find themselves laughing or smiling, or eating good food, they automatically condemn themselves as if they sinned.
    * The natural state of the soul is that it desires pleasure. And though this desire often leads people into forbidden actions, this inclination towards desire is something we should thank Allah for since if we did not have it, our striving towards Jannah would be extremely minimized.
    * The point here is, feed your soul from pleasure which is halal. Laugh, like the Prophet laughed and smile like he smiled. Eat like the Prophet - and all the Messengers - ate ["O you Messengers! Eat of the good things and act righteously"] for it leads to virtue.
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    Ibn Hazm says:

    224. In the first place, he is weak in mind and ignorant. No fault is worse then these two, for a wise man is one who sees his own faults, fights against them and tries to overcome them. A fool ignores them because he has little knowledge and discernment and his thoughts are feeble, possibly because he takes his faults to be good qualities, and there is nothing on earth worse than this.

    225. There are many who boast of having committed adultery, homosexuality [acts of child abuse], theft, and other sins, and are proud of these stains and of the aptitudes that they deployed in these shameful acts.

    Notes:

    * Ibn al-Qayyim wrote in Madarij as-Salikeen:

    وفرحك بالذنب أشد عند الله من الذنب

    "The happiness one feels with their sin is worse in sight of Allah than the sin itself".
    * The Prophet said: "All of my Ummah will be forgiven except those who openly expose their sins."
    * There are exceptions to the above hadith, such as when you tell people about your sin in order to keep them from falling in your same hole, and the hadith of Ka'b ibn Malik provides sufficient evidence for that.
    * But the nass (intent) of the hadith of the Prophet is that, if you're exposing your sins - telling people about it, boasting about it, nay even encouraging others towards it, then you have pushed yourself outside of Allah's massive mercy, due to your massive arrogance.
    * This all provides insight into the hadith of the Prophet (mentioned in an above post) that "If you feel no shame, then do as you wish". As if you've reached this level of having lost all shame in sinning, and rather boast about your sin, then do whatever you want - hell awaits you, and forgiveness is beyond you (unless you change your actions etc).
    * What every believer needs however, is not to never sin, since that is unavoidable, but rather to feel a strong sense of shame when you do sin.
    * This is best illustrated by this short story: When Adam (as) sinned and ate from the tree, he began running. Allah (swt) spoke to him and said "Are you running from me, O Adam?", to which Adam (as) replied, "No O Lord. No (rather), it is haya' from you". Meaning, he was running out of shame for his transgressing against the rights of Allah. This is the shame we need. The shame that keeps you up at night, causing you to think about your sin and how to rectify yourself...the shame that drives you to seek any good deed in order to bring yourself back into Allah's favour.
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    Ibn Hazm says:

    125. Anyone who is forced to mix with men should on no account tell his companion everything that passes through his mind. When he leaves him, he must always behave as if he were a desperate enemy. When he wakes up each morning he should always expect his friends to betray him and do evil, expect them to behave exactly like his sworn enemies. If nothing of the sort happens, he should praise God; if it does, then at least he will prepared and the shock will be less. For myself, I tell you I had a friend who had sworn friendship, sincere pure friendship, for bad times or good, for richer or poorer, in anger and in satisfaction. This friend changed his attitude towards me, in a most hateful way, after twelve years of perfect friendship, and for an absolutely futile reason which I would never have believed could influence such a man. He has never been reconciled with me since, and this has made me very sad for many years.
    However, one should not do bad things and follow the example of wicked men and traitors.

    Notes:

    * The first thing to note is that, despite these words, contempt for humankind is not what is necessitated. Hatred for humankind is the same as love for them, both being a stark weakness, both exposing oneself to be controlled and altered by the actions of others.
    * What is necessary is apathy and indifference. And the perception that more often than not, people will harm you. They will betray you, they will decieve you, they will backbite you, they will disregard your honour. Loyalty in man is one of the rarest characteristics, and in my humble opinion, one of the greatest characteristics in the companions of the Prophet.
    * Holding the expectation that people will harm you, and having an indifference towards people will allow you to act in any way you want - an essential disposition Muslims need in these times of strangeness - and at the same time minimize the effect of the inevitable evil humans will throw your way.
    * The greatest walked lonely roads.
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    Ibn Hazm says:

    26. “Never lose your temper,” as Allâh’s Prophet (peace be upon him) said to a man asking advice, and, as he also said commanding him, “Do as you would be done by”, together encapsulate the whole of virtue. Indeed, the fact that the Prophet forbade all anger implies that although the soul has been given the ability to be angry, it should refrain from this passion, and the [Prophet’s] commandment to do as you would be done implies that the souls should turn away from the strong force of greed and lust and should uphold the authority or the means of justice which springs from the rationality which is part of the reasonable soul.

    Notes:

    * Generally speaking, anger is an emotion through which greed, lust, and injustice is usually carried. Rarely do you find a man oppressing others, and himself, except that he is in a state of anger - save of course, those who are maliciously evil (think: world 'leaders' who plot and plan the deaths of thousands through war for selfish gain).
    * This said, anger is not necessarily totally prohibited. In fact, the Prophet himself would be angry at certain times, and almost all of these instances were recorded, since it was not in the Prophet's customary disposition to be angry. Rather he, upon him be peace, was known to be cheerful, and would constantly smile. So when he did get angry, the companions would always know, and take record of it. Therefore you'll come across some narrations stating "we found the Prophet angry" or "his face turned red from anger".
    * There is something interesting, in fact great, in the anger of the Prophet. It was never for his own selfish sake. Hind (ra) says: "No one would stand against his anger when matters of the Lord’s truth were opposed, until he had triumphed, but he would never get angry for his own sake, nor would he ever seek to win such an argument."

    Aisha (ra) also narrates a hadith in which she states: "Allah's Apostle never took revenge (over anybody) for his own sake but (he did) only when Allah's Legal Bindings were outraged in which case he would take revenge for Allah's Sake."
    * His anger was never for his own sake. It was not due to people harming or annoying him. Ibn Hazm's words apply to this type of anger. An anger of selfishness. Rather the Prophet only let himself (i.e. he controlled his anger, rather than his anger control him) get angry for the sake of God...when the right's of God had been transgressed.
    * But why anger, you ask? Anger is a great motivator. When you see evil, and simply get upset, or pity "the state of the ummah", as we hear often today, then you are encouraging a certain lethargy. When people are depressed and fall into self-pity, they do not act nor work towards changing an evil. This is weak faith. But when you are angry, you are motivated into swift and decisive action which usually, by the Permission of Allah, brings about favourable results.
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    Ibn Hazm says:

    95. In times of civil war, the blossom does not set fruit.

    Notes:


    * I tried to understand exactly what Ibn Hazm meant by this line for a while now. As poetic as it is, it remains vague. But recently, I think I know what he was aiming at.
    * Often we see brothers or sisters who are deeply involved in Islamic activites. They may be often at your local masjid, they may be running your MSA, they may be the best recitors of the Qur'an, they may be the one's known to pray in length, or fast with intensity - but then one day, in what seems to be a blink of an eye - they've completely changed. Their beard or hijab has disappeared, and now they're only known for their involvement in haram - in our culture, often their involvement with the other gender.
    * Here people often ask "how can this happen to them" or the more arrogant version of the question posed, sounds as "how can Allah do this to them".
    * What needs to be understood is that Allah intensifies the disease of misguidance in the hearts of those who have already chosen misguidance. And so Allah (swt) says:
    فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ فَزَادَهُمُ اللّهُ مَرَضاً
    {In their hearts is a disease (of doubt and hypocrisy) and Allah has increased their disease.}
    * The reality is that, the deeds they did that we thought were good, bore no fruit. They were essentially meaningless because there was a lack of sincerity and a misdirection of intention. And so within this person there is a civil war, where the outerward reality of the person belies their inner reality. This is where hypocrisy is born. This hypocrisy causes massive pain within the person, which drives them to eventually just not care about their honour or their reputation or anything like that, and begin to outwardly sin in some of the most shameful ways.
    * But during this time of "civil war", which all of us live through at some point or another, there is no good that can come out of your actions. There is no fruit that can blossom. Until you can return sincerity to your heart, all your good deeds become exercises in futility.
    * This is the importance of tazkiyyah, self-purification. It is needed before anything else in order to give value and bring benefit from your good deeds and righteous actions.
    * You can see this fact in Surat al-Baqarah, where Ibrahim (as) makes dua to Allah and says:

    رَبَّنَا وَابْعَثْ فِيهِمْ رَسُولاً مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِكَ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ
    إِنَّكَ أَنتَ العَزِيزُ الحَكِيمُ
    {"Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own (and indeed Allah answered their invocation by sending Muhammad Peace be upon him ), who shall recite unto them Your Verses and instruct them in the Book (this Quran) and Al-Hikmah (full knowledge of the Islamic laws and jurisprudence or wisdom or Prophethood, etc.), and sanctify them. Verily! You are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise."}

    Twenty-two verses later, Allah (swt) states his acceptance of Ibrahim's (as) dua

    كَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا فِيكُمْ رَسُولاً مِّنكُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِنَا وَيُزَكِّيكُمْ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُواْ تَعْلَمُونَ
    {Similarly (to complete My Blessings on you) We have sent among you a Messenger (Muhammad SAW) of your own, reciting to you Our Verses (the Quran) and sanctifying you, and teaching you the Book (the Quran) and the Hikmah (i.e. Sunnah, Islamic laws and Fiqh - jurisprudence), and teaching you that which you used not to know.}

    This dua' is basically outlining the job of a Prophet and Messenger. The point of interest to be taken from this is that, look at how when Allah accepted the dua', He brought mention of tazkiyyah (sanctity) as the first job of the Prophet, because it is needed as the first step of the worshipper.
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    Ibn Hazm says:

    249. If you take pride in your ancestry, that is even worse than everything we have mentioned so far, since it is pride in something that has no real usefulness for you in this world or the next. Just ask yourself whether your ancestry protects you against hunger, or dishonour, or whether it does you any good in the next world.

    Notes:

    * I believe in the first post of this series, I noted that Muslim's seemed to place nobility in caste systems and ancestry.
    * It's true that many, if not most Muslim's attach immense pride and self-recognition in social class and ancestry, despite the fact that it means absolutely nothing. It gives you relatively nothing in this world, and absolutely nothing in the next world.
    * The Qur'an shows the examples of three people(s) who were at a great stature and mistook that stature to be due to ancestry and lineage.
    * First there is Iblis who was at a great stature because of his Taqwa, but became deluded into thinking that his stature was a birthright rather than due to his Taqwa. As a result, he abandoned his taqwa, and so Allah pushed him away from the station He had given him.
    * Second, there is Bani Israel, who were chosed by Allah over all the people due to their Taqwa, but they began to consider their lofty status as a birthright and due to their ancestry, which led them to reject the Prophet (saw) as the final Prophet, and became cursed by Allah and earned His anger.
    * Then there is Adam (upon him be peace), who was given Paradise to reside in due to his Taqwa. But as he began to consider his status as a birthright, he ended up sinning, and being removed from his great status in Paradise. Of course, he realized his mistake immediately and asked for repentance.
    * The end lesson to take: Even if there is value in lineage and ancestry etc, the only way to truly attain it is through Taqwa, and every other way to attain it is pure delusion.

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