THE CHILDREN EDUCATION

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    THE CHILDREN EDUCATION

    AND THE BASES OF THEIR HABILITATION


    By Sheikh:

    Abi Abd El Mouiz Mohamed Ali Ferkous



    All praises be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, peace and blessings be upon the one sent by Allah as a mercy to the worlds, upon his family, his companions and his brothers until the doomsday.

    The Islamic education bases itself on the realization of the balance between the spiritual and the material side, considering that it is built on these two component realities of man. This latter, his life is organized according to these foundations. Man, therefore, is not only material to be endless on earth or be passionate for the life of this world and give oneself up to pleasures excess. However, he has himself his own large and deep spiritual world. Starting from this point, the Islamic education stands out, in comparison with other educative systems, in the preparation of man not only for the life of this world, but also for the eternal life of the beyond.

    In fact, since the child is the center of the educative process, it is compulsory that his life and mind must be built according to the elaborated form and with the different knowledge and concepts that he acquires and which are inculcated. Thus, he can have control over his mind and thoughts so that he would not have any other theoretical conception in life except the one wanted for him to be used in his observations and experiences according to what he learnt or exercised himself to and what he was taught.

    The foundations of the child’s personality traits are built during childhood. That is to say, once at the years of discretion. Hence, the education’s task is to form, adapt, and prepare him to face life. Nourishing and taking care of him accomplish his physical growth. As for the spiritual one, it is to provide him with what purifies and elevates him. Supplying him with all kinds of sciences and knowledge will assure his intellectual development, since a safety mind is only with a safety growth. Accustoming him to do good and forbidding him evil in accordance with Allah’s method and education, because child’s uprightness depends on the safety of his mind, and his own deviation depends on the corruption of his mind. The safety and the corruption of the mind are related to the manner he is directed, especially during childhood and on the process of the preparation stage.

    Consequently, his educative preparation bases itself on foundations: the one that stands the first consists of educating the child at the level of the faith and training him to the knowledge of his Creator and having confidence in Him. Because, it is this faith that pushes him to the good and removes him from the evil, it is the faith that guides the behavior and controls it. The link of the faith with the deeds is of a very close relation, because Allah- the Almighty- made of the deeds a real criterion of the sincerity of the faith, and rebuked those who remove faith from the deeds, Allah- the Almighty- says: “They say with their mouths what is not in their hearts” (Al Aimrane: 167), also: « It is most hateful to Allah that you should say that which you do not do» (El Saf: 3).

    In fact, the true faith is the one that emanates good behavior, the one that produces good actions and emerges good morality. The Noble Koran is full of verses that link the faith with the good deeds. Thus, the education’s task is to join between the faith and the deeds with taking into consideration the fact that the deeds reflect, show, and provide evidence of the faith. The priority in the preparation of the child, therefore, is to teach him the meanings of the correct faith and its elevated aims, make him understand its truths and the eternal happiness it brings to him, but a teaching done by knowledge and perception of truth in order to realize Allah’s saying: “O you who believe! Save yourselves and your families from a fire” (El-Tahrim: 6). The child is involved in this verse since he is a part of his parent; he teaches him the licit and the illicit and protects him from transgressions, from sins, and other commandments. One of the scholars said: (It’s our duty to teach our children and our families the religion and the good, and all what is necessary as a matter of a good education). (1)

    Also, among the pillars of the child’s education and formation: teaching him the meanings of good and evil in the life of this world, from where he is obliged to prepare himself by working for his own happiness and give up with what will bring him misfortune. This is by directing his natural dispositions to appeal to Allah, to know Him, have trust in Him and have quietness in Him; he lowers himself except to Allah, he fears only Him and his heart is linked only to Him. Because, it’s at this point that consists the Muslim feeling of pride because he is in contact with the Almighty and the Dear. His personality is distinguished by this religious pride requested in accordance with the Word of Allah- the Almighty-: “And to Allah belongs the might and to His Apostle and to the believers” (El Munafiqun: 8). These qualities stand out according to their opposites such as: abasement, submission, or adulation to anyone among the creation. Starting from this point, it’s a duty to preserve and to keep the nature safe which the sons of Adam swore in to Allah- the Almighty-. He took from them the pact to worship Him exclusively alone and not ascribing any associate to Him and took upon Himself to assure their subsistence. Allah- the Almighty- says about this matter: “And when your Lord brought forth from the children of Adam, from their backs, their descendants, and made them bear witness against their own souls: Am I not your Lord? They said: Yes! we bear witness. Lest you should say on the day of resurrection: Surely we were heedless of this” (El Aaraf : 172). The Glorious and the Dear says in a divine tradition*: “I have created all my servants as one having a natural inclination to the worship of Allah but it is Satan who turns them away from the right religion. He makes unlawful that which has been declared lawful for them and he commands them to ascribe partnership to Me.” (2). As well as, it is advisable to push the natural energies, like instincts and passions, - supplied to the child by Allah- towards the good and to the orientation he is created for, in order to be elevated and be pride with, and so that he can avoid becoming attached to this vain and ephemeral world, and giving oneself up to carnal pleasures or answering the call of Satan. The prophet (pbAbuh) said: “Satan holds a seed in the son of Adam, and the Angel holds also one. The seed of Satan consists of pushing to the evil and not believing on the truth. The seed of the Angel, however, pushing to the good and believe on the truth. Whoever finds the latter should know that it comes from Allah and gives praise to Allah, and whoever finds the former should ask Allah’s protection from Satan the lapidated. Then, he recited: “Satan threatens you with poverty and enjoins you to be niggardly” (El Baqara : 268) (3).

    Education is a means of rehabilitating and directing to the safety nature whoever moved away from it. Thus, the mission of education and the accomplishment of its duty, it follows that a reward from the heaven, Allah- the Almighty- says: «And as for him who fears to stand in the presence of his Lord and forbids the soul from low desires, Then surely the garden that is the abode» (El Naziàt : 40-41).

    Moreover, among the duties in the formation of the child and the methods of building his personality: Providing the good example and the righteous model by which he can guide himself during his first period of intellectual, psychological and moral growth. This is what stimulates his knowledge and receives it through imitation and pursuit. The parents are coming at the first degree among the closest people to him; they are his first element as a model and an example. In fact, parents are of a great influence on the child at the level of faith and religion as far as to divert him from the pure nature in which Allah has created him, and from what he has to know about Islam and the love of it. Thus, they are the cause of his goodness or his badness, his uprightness or his corruption, because usually, the child believes on his parents’ behavior and conduct. Therefore, if the parents’ behavior is in conformity with the revelation, the child gets influenced and imitates the picture they represent. For that reason, this becomes one of the factors of the formation of his Islamic personality notions.



    The child grows, like all of us,

    On what his father accustomed him to.

    Since the good is original in the born, the evil is adventitious and his availability to the good is perfect. The prophet (pbAbuh) said: “Every child is born with a true faith of Islam (i.e. to worship none but Allah alone) but his parents convert him to Judaism, Christianity or Magainism, as an animal delivers a perfect baby animal. Do you find it mutilated?” Then Abu Huraira recited the holy verse: «The pure nature (true faith of Islam) (i.e. worshipping none but Allah) made by Allah in which He has made men; there is no altering of Allah's creation» (Ar-Room: 30) (4). This Hadith shows that people were born with a pure nature and on full availability to the good and to the goodness; in accordance with the perfect Allah’s creation and that the defect comes only from man’s deeds. So, the duty is to remove from the child what may corrupt him, from what may desolate his mentality and his nature to not be a victim of deviation, delusion and a bad morality influence. From this point derives the great responsibility of the parents if they are deficient towards the child in teaching the meanings of the religion and its precepts and if they fail in his intellectual and spiritual education and deliver him over to the effect of deviated ideas or be a prey to a society where it is spread Jewish, Christian and Magician doctrines and other impious and of delusion doctrines. This is what makes of them responsible in the eyes of the Praised Allah, because they contribute to the transformation of their child from his nature’s needs into the religion of the deviation and delusion. Their responsibility is confirmed by the saying of the prophet (pbAbuh): “Surely! Everyone of you is a guardian and is responsible for his charges: The Imam (ruler) of the people is a guardian and is responsible for his subjects; a man is the guardian of his family (household) and is responsible for his subjects; a woman is the guardian of her husband’s home and of his children and is responsible for them” (5).

    In addition to this, being responsible requires that the child should be trained in a practical way the teaching of the Koran’s recitation and learning it by heart since it is the basis of Islam and the religious reference. Also, the child should be educated by learning some Hadiths (prophet’s (pbAbuh) sayings) and invocations of the tradition said in different and specific occasions such as sleeping, waking, when hearing the call to prayer, at the beginning and the end of eating, coming into or coming out of home, sneezing, and so on. Besides, it is preferable to strengthen the relation of the child with Islamic notions going with the meanings of the revelation, like sincerity and the Marvelous Names of the Praised Allah, also with some Islamic slogans so that he could be accustomed with them, attach his heart with these meanings and teach him Islamic prescriptions according to what suits his mind. Usually, once the child is at the age of seven, we can start implanting the Islamic personality in the child and training him to the notions of this personality according to his capacities and to what suits him.

    Among the duties in the education of the child: to be soft and courteous towards him, behaving leniently and not be rude, especially from his parents or those instead of them like the grandfather or the uncle; because rudeness in education engenders rudeness in the behavior. In an authenticated Hadith, from Al-Barâ' ibn `Azib (sAbuh) where he says: “I saw the prophet (pbAbuh) holding El Hasan ibn `Alî on his shoulders saying: “O Allah! Love him as I love him” (6). El Nawawi commented this Hadith as follow: “The Hadith shows the duty of being soft, merciful and kind towards children”. (7)

    Also, the child needs from his parents to be concrete so that he could feel what’s in their heart; feelings like love, tenderness and compassion. These feelings can be real to the child by kissing, carrying and coaxing him, by fondling him on his head and his face or taking him in their arms and their bosom. 'Abû Hurayra (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “Allah’s Apostle kissed Al-Hasan Bin Ali while Al-Aqra’ bin Habis At-Tamim was sitting beside him. Al-Aqra’ said, “I have ten children and I have never kissed anyone of them,” Allah’s Apostle cast a look at him and said; “Whoever is not merciful to others will not be treated mercifully.” (8). It is also reported in an authentic Hadith that a Bedouin came to the prophet and said, “You (people) kiss the boys! We don’t kiss them.” The prophet said, “I cannot put mercy in your heart after Allah has taken it away from it.” (9). This meaning is confirmed by what reported El-Bukhary from Usama Bin Zaid (mAbpwh) who says, “Allah’s Apostles used to put me on (one of) his thighs and put Al-Hasan bin Ali on his other thigh, and then embraces us and says, “ O Allah! Please be Merciful to them, as I am merciful to them” (10).

    Among the aspects of the child’s understanding of what’s in the heart of his parents like care, compassion and love: to thank and to compliment him on his good deeds and on the accomplishment of what he is asked to do. In the opposite view, he should be warned if ever he has misbehaved or failed in a duty. Then, good habits and manners that lacked him should be taught as the prophet (pbAbuh) has shown this method of education in the Hadith of Omar ibn 'Abî Salama (mAbpwh) who said, “I was a boy under of Allah’s Apostle and my hand used to go around the dish while I was eating. So Allah’s Apostle said to me, ‘‘O boy! Mention the Name of Allah and eat with your right hand, and eat of the dish what is nearer to you.’’ (11). From the other hand, if the parents treat their children with this love and affection, this requires to be equal towards them and not giving preference to boys compared with the girls and wrong the female in their right of care, consideration and charity. This kind of preference is considered as the old habits of “the age of ignorance” (i.e. before Islam -Al-Djahilia-) what is recommended is to not make the difference between males and females, not even between the females or between the males themselves or make some of them particular from the others, either at the level of affection, treatment, love and gift or any other matter, just according to the saying of Allah’s Apostle (pbAbuh) to El-Bachir Bnu Saàd (mAbpwh) who made a favour to one of his children among the others by giving him a gift: “Have you given (the like of it) to everyone of your sons?” He answered in the negative. Allah’s Apostles said, “Be afraid of Allah, and be just towards your children” (12). From the third part, it may appear from the child an action which would irritate or bother the parents, what should turn them neither tough nor violent towards him because of his early age and his intellectual aptitudes which are not accomplished yet, they should, however, treat him softly. In fact, it is reported from the prophet (pbAbuh) in an authenticated Hadith that he said, “Verily Allah is kind and He loves kindness and confers upon kindness which He does not confer upon severity.” (13), in another narration, “He who is deprived of tenderly feelings is in fact deprived of good.” (14). Starting from this point, taking into consideration the method of kindness and forgiveness makes the relation of the child with his parents a relation of love that he feels inside of himself, and because of it he always tends to them, hears their advices and directives. Using violence during his childhood, however, engenders violence when he becomes adult, and the roughness undergone by the child in his early age makes his rigidity towards his parents once grown up. Nevertheless, this doesn’t mean that we shouldn’t absolutely be severe with him; on the contrary, if ever kindness, sympathy, recommendations and directives don’t work with him it is then useful to be so, by showing him one’s displeasure, scowling the face, the disapproval of his behavior, raising the voice, repulsing and leaving him, all these are the aspects of rigidity, and even he can be tapped once at the age of ten. It is reported in a Hadith: “Order prayer to your children at the age of seven, hit them -because of it – at the age of ten and separate between them in their bed” (15). Treating him in this way aims to sensitize him, make him feel his misbehaviour and for neglecting what’s he is asked to do.

    However, if the parents – or child’s guardians- fail in their duty towards him or neglect his education, the child, therefore, will be taken away from their hand and given to another protection which is appropriate to his education. From this point of view, Ibn Al Qayim (mercy of Allah be upon him) said: “Our sheikh (i.e. the sheikh of Islam: Ibn Taimiah) said: “If any of the parents renounces to the education of the child and from what Allah commanded to do, in this case, he has disobeyed and has no authority on him. Moreover, all those who haven’t accomplished their responsibility have no authority or no protection to assure. Besides, either his authority should be raised and establish another one instead or join someone with him to accomplish this task together. Because, what is requested is the obedience of Allah and His Messenger as far as possible, for it is not an acquired right as much as inheritance which happens through the relation of blood, marriage and relationships, and regardless the heir is good or bad, but it’s an authority which requires the ability to accomplish the duty as well as knowing and doing it as far as possible.” (16).

    These are some aspects of the child’s education. His good formation is based on the faith of Islam brought by the most excellent of the human beings (pbAbuh), so that his education be completed according to his natural abilities and psychological availabilities placed in him by Allah, in accordance with the method and the education of Allah which made of the Holy Koran the behavior of the prophet (pbAbuh). Thus, on Allah’s way and method; educated, beloved and sincere generations are formed; they assume responsibilities upon themselves, fulfil their duty, make use of their power in the good and the virtue and avoid the evil and the immorality as well as consider secretly and openly Allah’s look, work in the way to achieve peace, stability and gain the happiness of this world and of the beyond. The praised Allah says: «As for those who come to Him as believers who had led a righteous life, they attain the high ranks. The gardens of Eden, beneath which rivers flow, will be their abode forever. Such is the reward for those who purify themselves. » (Ta-Ha: 75-76).

    Our final prayer is all praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, peace and blessings of Allah be upon our prophet Mohammed, his family, companions and brothers until the doomsday.





    REFERENCES:



    * A divine tradition = “Hadith Qudussi” (in which Allah speaks to the prophet).

    1- «The Interprétation », d’Elqoutoubi: 18/195-196.

    2- Reported by Muslims in “The Paradise: Its Description, Its Bounties And Its Intimates” (7386). By Ahmed (17947) from the Hadith of Aiadh Ben Hmaar Elmedjachiai (may Allah be pleased with him).

    3- Reported by Eltirmidhy in “The Interpretation Of The Koran” (3256), from the Hadith of Abd Allah Ben Messaud (mAbpwh), made valid by Elalbany in “The Authentic Of Eltirmidhy”: (2988), and in “The Candlestick”: (74) / the second authentication, and in “The Narrators’ Direction”: (70), and in “The Authentic Sources”: (38), in “The Recommendation”: (34).

    4- El-Bukhary in “Funerals”: 1358. Muslim in “Fate”: 6926. Ahmed: 7928, and by El-Bayhiqi: 12499. From the Hadith of Abu Huraira (mAbpwh).

    5- El-Bukhary in “The Judgments”: 7138. By Muslim in “Government”:4828. By Abu Daud in « Taxes »: 2930. And by Eltermidhy in “Fighting For The Cause Of Allah”:1806. From the hadith of Abd Allah Bnu Omar (mAbpwh).

    6- El-Bukhary in «The Virtues Of The Companions »: 3749. By Muslim in «The Virtues Of The Companions »: 6411. By Eltermidhy in « The Virtues »: 4152. By Ahmed: 19084. And by Elbayhiqi: 21602. From the Habits of Al-Barâ' ibn `Azib (mAbpwh).

    7- Explanation of « The Authentic Of Muslim » of El Nawawi: 15/ 194.

    8- El-Bukhary in «The Good Manners »: 5997. By Muslim in « The Virtues »:6170. By Abu Daud in « The Good Manners »: 5220. By El-Termidhy in « Devotion And Relation »:2035. Par Ahmed : 7491. And by Elhamidy in his « Traditions »: 1155. From the Hadith of Abû Hurayra (mAbpwh).

    9- El-Bukhary in «The Good Manners»: 5998. From the Hadith of Aicha (mAbpwh).

    10- El-Bukhary in «The Good Manners»: 6003 and by Ahmed: 22491. From the Hadith of Usama Bin Zaid (mAbpwh).

    11- El-Bukhary in «Food, Meals »:5376. By Muslim in « Drinks »: 5388. By Abu Daud in «Food»: 3779. By Elhamidy in « Food »: 1976. By Ibn Majah «Food»: 3391. And by Ahmed: 16769. From the Hadith of Omar ibn 'Abî Salama (mAbpwh)

    12- El-Bukhary in « Gifts »: 2585. And by Elbayhiqi in « Gifts »: 21351. From the Hadith of El-Nuàman Bnu Bachir (mAbpwh).

    13- Muslim in «Virtue, Good Manners And Relationship»: 6766, and by Elbayhiqi in « Witnesses »: 21317. From the Hadith of Aicha (mAbpwh).

    14- Muslim in «Virtue, Good Manners And Relationship»: 6763. By Abu Daud in «Good Manners »:4811. By Ibn Majah « Good Manners »: 3818. And by Ahmed: 19771. From the Hadith of Jarir Ibn Abd Allah (mAbpwh).

    15- Abu Daud in « The prayer »: 495/6854. By El-Darqanty: 899. And by Elbayhiqi: 3358. From the Hadith of Abd Allah Bnu Omar (mAbpwt). Authenticated Hadith by Ibn El-Moulqin in « The Brightness Of The Moon »: 3/283 and by El-Albany in « Quenching The Thirsty »: 247, and improved in « The Authenticated Collection»: 5868.

    16- Ibn El-Qayim in « Provision For The Resurrection »: 5/475.



    Algiers, on Ramadan 08th, 1427 / October 01h, 2006

    http://www.ferkous.com/rep/TraductionEN_3.php

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