The ruling on plural marriage and the wisdom behind it

Discussion in 'Women, Family, and Marriage' started by Abu Sarah, Jun 30, 2007.

  1. Abu Sarah
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    Abu Sarah Allahu Akbar Staff Member

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    The ruling on plural marriage and the wisdom behind it

    ...........................................................................​

    1 – The ruling on plural marriage in Islam:

    The shar’i text which permits plural marriage is:

    Allaah has allowed men to have more than one wife, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
    “And if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphan girls then marry (other) women of your choice, two or three, or four; but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one or (slaves) that your right hands possess. That is nearer to prevent you from doing injustice”

    [al-Nisa’ 4:3]

    This clearly shows that plural marriage is permissible, and that according to Islamic sharee’ah a man may marry one, two, three or four wives, but it is not permissible for him to marry more than four. This is the view of the mufassireen and fuqaha’; the Muslims are unanimously agreed on this point and there is no difference of opinion.

    It should be noted that there are conditions attached to plural marriage:

    1 – Justice and fairness.

    Because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one” [al-Nisa’ 4:3].
    This verse shows that justice is a condition of plural marriage being permissible. If a man fears that he will not be able to treat his wives fairly if he marries more than one, then it is forbidden for him to marry more than one. What is meant by justice here is treating all wives equally with regard to spending, clothing, staying overnight and other material matters which are within his ability to control.

    With regard to justice and equal treatment in the area of love, he is not held accountable for that, and it is not required of him because it is not possible to control it. This is what is meant by the words of Allaah (interpretation of the meaning):

    “You will never be able to do perfect justice between wives even if it is your ardent desire”

    [al-Nisa’ 4:129]

    i.e., with regard to love of the heart.

    2 – Being able to afford spending on plural wives.

    The evidence for this is the verse in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
    “And let those who find not the financial means for marriage keep themselves chaste, until Allaah enriches them of His Bounty”

    [al-Noor 24:33]

    In these verses Allaah commands the one who is able to get married but cannot afford it to remain chaste. One of the reasons for not be able to afford to get married is not having enough to pay the mahr (dowry) or not being able to spend on one’s wife.
    Al-Mufassal fi Ahkaam al-Mar’ah, vol. 6, p. 286.

    Some of the scholars are of the view that plural marriage is better than restricting oneself to one wife.

    Shaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked: Is the basic principle concerning marriage plural marriage or marriage to one wife? He replied: The basic principle in sharee’ah is plural marriage for those who can afford it, if there is no fear of injustice, because of the many interests that are served by that, such as keeping himself and those whom he marries chaste, kind treatment of them, producing lots of children and increasing the numbers of the ummah and the numbers of those who worship Allaah alone. This is indicated by the words of Allaah (interpretation of the meaning):

    “And if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphan girls then marry (other) women of your choice, two or three, or four; but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one or (slaves) that your right hands possess. That is nearer to prevent you from doing injustice”

    [al-Nisa’ 4:3]

    And because the Prophet :saw:(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) married more than one wife, and Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

    “Indeed in the Messenger of Allaah (Muhammad) you have a good example to follow”

    [al-Ahzaab 33:21]

    One of the companions of the Prophet :saw:(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “As for me, I will not eat meat,” and another said, “As for me I will pray and never sleep”; another said, “As for me I will fast and never break my fast,” and another said: “As for me, I will never marry women.” When news of that reached him, the Prophet :saw: (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) addressed the people. He praised Allaah then he said: “You are the ones who said such and such. As for me, by Allaah, I fear Allaah more than you do, but I fast and I break my fast, I pray and I sleep, and I marry women. Whoever turns away from my Sunnah has nothing to do with me.” These great words of the Prophet :saw: (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) include both marriage to one woman and plural marriage.

    Majallat al-Balaagh, issue no. 1015; Fataawa ‘Ulama al-Balad al-Haraam, p. 386.-Mar’ah, part 6, p. 286).

    .........................................................................


    2 – The wisdom behind permitting plural marriage

    1 – Plural marriage helps to increase the numbers of the ummah (nation, Muslim community). It is known that the numbers can only be increased through marriage, and the number of offspring gained through plural marriage will be greater than that achieved through marriage to one wife.

    Wise people know that increasing the number of offspring will strengthen the ummah and increase the number of workers in it, which will raise its economic standard – if the leaders run the affairs of state well and make use of its resources in a proper manner. Ignore the claims of those who say that increasing the numbers of human beings poses a danger to the earth’s resources which are insufficient, for Allaah the Most Wise Who has prescribed plural marriage has guaranteed to provide provision for His slaves and has created on earth what is more than sufficient for them. Whatever shortfall exists is due to the injustice of administrations, governments and individuals, and due to bad management. Look at China, for example, the greatest nation on earth as far as number of inhabitants is concerned, and it is regarded as one of the strongest nations in the world, and other nations would think twice before upsetting China; it is also one of the great industrialized nations. Who would dare think of attacking China, I wonder? And why?

    2 – Statistics show that the number of women is greater than the number of men; if each man were to marry just one woman, this would mean that some women would be left without a husband, which would have a harmful effect on her and on society:

    The harmful effect is that she would never find a husband to take care of her interests, to give her a place to live, to spend on her, to protect her from haraam desires, and to give her children to bring her joy. This may lead to deviance and going astray, except for those on whom Allaah has mercy.

    With regard to the harmful effects on society, it is well known that this woman who is left without a husband may deviate from the straight path and follow the ways of promiscuity, so she may fall into the swamp of adultery and prostitution – may Allaah keep us safe and sound – which leads to the spread of immorality and the emergence of fatal diseases such as AIDS and other contagious diseases for which there is no cure. It also leads to family breakdown and the birth of children whose identity is unknown, and who do not know who their fathers are.

    Those children do not find anyone to show compassion towards them or any mature man to raise them properly. When they go out into the world and find out the truth, that they are illegitimate, that is reflected in their behaviour, and they become exposed to deviance and going astray. They may even bear grudges against society, and who knows? They may become the means of their country’s destruction, leaders of deviant gangs, as is the case in many nations in the world.

    3 – Men are exposed to incidents that may end their lives, for they work in dangerous professions. They are the soldiers who fight in battle, and more men may die than women. This is one of the things that raise the percentage of husbandless women, and the only solution to this problem is plural marriage.

    4 – There are some men who may have strong physical desires, for whom one wife is not enough. If the door is closed to such a man and he is told, you are not allowed more than one wife, this will cause great hardship to him, and his desire may find outlets in forbidden ways.

    In addition to that, a woman menstruates each month, and when she gives birth, she bleeds for forty days (this post-partum bleeding is called nifaas in Arabic), at which time a man cannot have intercourse with his wife, because intercourse at the time of menstruation or nifaas is forbidden, and the harm that it causes has been proven medically. So plural marriage is permitted when one is able to be fair and just.


    5 – Plural marriage does not exist only in the Islamic religion, rather it was known among the previous nations. Some of the Prophets were married to more than one woman. The Prophet of Allaah Sulaymaan (Solomon) had ninety wives. At the time of the Prophet :saw:(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), there were some men who became Muslims who had eight or five wives. The Prophet :saw:(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told them to keep four wives and to divorce the rest.

    6 – A wife may be barren, or she may not meet her husband’s needs, or he may be unable to have intercourse with her because she is sick. A husband may long to have children, which is a legitimate desire, and he may want to have a sex life within marriage, which is something permissible, and the only way is to marry another wife. It is only fair for the wife to agree to remain his wife and to allow him to marry another.

    7 – A woman may be one of the man’s relatives and have no one to look after her, and she is unmarried or a widow whose husband has died, and the man may think that the best thing to do for her is to include her in his household as a wife along with his first wife, so that he will both keep her chaste and spend on her. This is better for her than leaving her alone and being content only to spend on her.

    8 – There are other shar’i interests that call for plural marriages, such as strengthening the bonds between families, or strengthening the bonds between a leader and some of his people or group, and he may think that one of the ways of achieving this aim is to become related to them through marriage, even if that is through plural marriage.

    Objection:

    Some people may object and say that plural marriage means having co-wives in one house, and that the disputes and enmity that may arise between co-wives will have an effect on the husband, children and others, and this is harmful and should be avoided, and the only way to prevent that is to ban plural marriage.

    Response to the objection:

    The response to that is that family arguments may occur even when there is only one wife, and they may not even happen when there is more than one wife, as we see in real life. Even if we assume that there may be more arguments than in a marriage to one wife, even if we accept that they may be harmful and bad, the harm is outweighed by the many good things in a plural marriage. Life is not entirely bad or entirely good, but what everyone hopes is that the good will outweigh the bad, and this principle is what applies in the permission for plural marriage.

    Moreover, each wife has the right to her own, separate accommodation as prescribed in Islam. It is not permissible for the husband to force his wives to live together in one house.

    Another objection:

    If we allow men to have plural wives, why are women not allowed to have multiple husbands, why does a woman not have the right to marry more than one man?

    Response to this objection:

    There is no point in giving a woman the right to marry multiple husbands, rather that is beneath her dignity and she would not know the lineage of her children, because she is the one who bears the offspring, and it is not permissible for the offspring to be formed from the sperm of a number of men lest the lineage of the child be lost and no one will know who is responsible for bringing up the child; this will lead to breakdown of families, loss of ties between fathers and children, which is not permitted in Islam as it is not in the interests of the woman or of the child or of society as a whole.

    Al-Mufassal fi Ahkaam al-Mar’ah, part 6, p. 290

    Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid
  2. Aapa
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    Aapa Mirajmom

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    Salaam,

    In this day and time with the number of widows in the countries that have been torn apart by the oppressors...it only makes sense to follow the path of the Prophet.
    As to the wives who would object..do you not want for your sister that which you have?
    We have allowed marriage, the fundamental backbone of society, to be reduced to an escapade in the bedroom. The most objections I have read are similar to I don't want to share my husband...I love him too much....this is reducing Love to a physcial level.
    The Ummah needs men to stand up and not allow Muslim women and children to be burdens of the oppressors.
  3. farhopes
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    farhopes No God but Allah

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    Assalamo alikom

    Jazak Allah khair, brother for enlightening our minds and hearts.

    I always believe that if a woman loves her husband true and spiritual, not only physical, love; this love is going to purify her heart from selfishness to contain the whole world.

    What's wrong if she accepts to share her husband with another sister to make a bigger Muslim, loving family.

    True and spiritual love is a great power that enables us to love others, specially those who share us the same Faith in Allah, and make us willing to provide them with any help we can offer.
  4. jabba
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    jabba Salafi Dawah is the best

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    Salam Alaikum

    let me just say any man that has a second wife FOR THE RIGHT ISLAMIC REASONS and the wives are truly happy with it then alhamdulillah thats great for them. For me however I could not imagine sharing my husband with anyone. Yes I want my sisters to have happy lives and wonderful husbands, but they would not be happy if they had to deal with me lol. There are things in life I do not share: my toothbrush, my secret stash of candy (shh don't tell) and most impoortantly I do not and will not share my husband.
    As well just because you are allowed to do something doesn't mean you have to do it.

    wa salam
  5. Aapa
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    Aapa Mirajmom

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    Salaam,

    Sister, no one is telling you to share your husband. I was in agreement that there is a need.
    When I was younger I thought polyogomy was wrong.. I know better know.
    It makes sense for the sake of the ummah and the protection of women.


    For the sake of continuning this discussion would you be so kind as to reply to the following question. Sister, many people benefit from these discussions and being able to present many facets of an issue. You are bold enough to present a facet.

    Here goes: We know in janna men will have wives. Not one wife but wives. This is a fact. I state this is a fact as this is Muslim belief. Please correct me if I am wrong. ( my sons say I take forever to say something )...
    How do we account for the reality of several wives in jannah, given that this is a test here. I hope I am making sense. How does the one wife...know that she will have an eternity with other wives...at what point will she recognize..that it might be better to share while we can. I am asking a question. I do not have an answer.
  6. jabba
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    jabba Salafi Dawah is the best

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    Salam Sister can you plz provide proof that men must have many wives in jannah. What if they only want one ( yes men out there do exist ) ?
    If we get to go to heaven we will inshAllah have everything we want.....I'm not trying to argue this at all plz understand that. I'm trying to get an elplanation as I don't know too much about this subject
  7. Aapa
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    Aapa Mirajmom

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    Salaam sister,

    No, I am not arguing as well. I know in the Quran there are several references for wives. I want to learn too. I did not pose this question just for you. I feel you are brave and would venture with me. I would need to reseach to provide you with evidence, as that would be the only thing to do. I am not an authority nor do I have an answer. I too am looking for an answer. Please give me a minute to research.
  8. kayleigh
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    kayleigh Junior Member

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    It makes sense for some people. Certainly not everyone, in ever situation. Though you can't say that polygamy would benefit every society in every situation. There have been times in history when, if polygamy were practiced, it would have severely harmed society (this being when there was a severe depopulation of women).
  9. Doris
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    Doris Junior Member

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    Bismilah,

    First, Allah Almighty says: "…This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion…" (Al-Ma’idah 5:3)

    Second, in the world we are living dear brothers and sisters the female has lost her natural position of protection in western society and is thus obliged to fight with passion for equality with the male.So it is not surprising to find western women and their eastern worshipers hatefully opposed to polygymy. There is no doubt that polygamy provides a base for jealousy to arise. However, the laws of Islam always give precedence to the general welfare of society over the individual discomfort or personal desires. Now the hadiths from the Messenger of Allah clearly indicate the fairness between the wives the man must treat with all of his wives fair and kind.For example the hadith reported in the sunnah of Abu Daud : "Whoever has two wives and leaned unduly to one of them will come on the Day of Judgment with half of his body leaning." (Sunan Abu Dawud)
    And finally brothers and sisters, love, as it is known in the West, is not a prerequisite for marriage in Islam.

    Doris
  10. Aapa
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    Aapa Mirajmom

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    Salaam,

    Sister Doris you are correct. Love is not a prerequiste. Love becomes. Love blossoms.
    However, the question which I am in need of knowing the answer to is:
    Is man not promised many wives in janna. If so...how does his earthy wife prepare herself for janna. What training can one wife undergo to strenghten herself. If we choose not to share our husband in this life...how do we prepare ourselves for eternity?
    This is not a judgement on anyone. It is a question. I am not even sure this is a valid question. The wives of the Holy Prophet (swas ) shared. Is there not instruction for us there. And going back to my original thought..in this day and time with so many widows due to war what is our Muslim duty?
  11. kayleigh
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    kayleigh Junior Member

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    To go along with mirajmom's question, why do men get multiple wives in the afterlife while women don't? Our "reward" is to share men and be one among many? Doesn't make much sense to me, nor does it seem like a nice way to spend eternity. Why are the men rewarded while the women continue to serve? I really know next to nothing about that aspect, so forgive me if I've said anything untrue - that is just my reaction based on what little I do know about it and I'd like someone to explain this whole thing to me.
  12. Aapa
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    Aapa Mirajmom

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    Salaam,

    My understanding is women are very giving in our nature. We are companions and need little. Our reward will be to live in eternity in janna. ( and when you get to be my age...you need a little rest from men..you take care of them after they leave home ( mom) ...you find the toothbrush..the shirt that can only be worn ...the suit...the shoes, socks, underwear is ready...yes dear...no dear..i do not know where the remote control is because my love you will never hand it to me!)
  13. SalmanFarsi
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    SalmanFarsi New Member

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    Salaam Alaikum,

    I think there are some things that we should just leave to Allah subahanahu wa talla because he knows best what would make us happy. Making it to Jannah and being saved from the torment of eternal fire itself is worth more than having a million wives or husbands or servants...why are we so quick to settle for something finite when the reward can be infinite?

    It should suffice to say that Allah Ta’ala mentions in the Qur’an, ‘You will have there (Aakhira) all that you could wish for, and you will have there everything you demand.’ Thus, her every desire and wish will be fulfilled and she will live in eternal happiness.

    I have no doubt in Allah delivering on his promises. What scares me is when we question his wisdom on things like plural marriages and at which time periods it may or may not apply and try to justify or debunk it. Simply because its not politically correct doesn't mean we have to shy away from it. Its absolute truth and we must stand by it. Not because of statistics or lame logics but because its Allah’s word. If we refuse to accept it, [i.e. refuse sister wives or refuse to take into marriage a second wife], then its a personal choice we have made. On the day the span of which is 50 thousand years and we will be drowning in our sweat, we will have plenty of time to explain our decisions on Allah’s junctions.

    In couple hundred years, we all will turn to dust as this life is temporary. But his word on this matter and all matters will live on.
    I love you all for the sake of Allah and do not mean to suggest that there should be no conversation about certain matters. However, we have to be aware that its shaitan that wishes us to question whats fair and whats not fair in Jannah. Nothing can be unfair in Jannah. That’s why its Jannah!

    And All praise is due to Allah; the most knowledgeable.

    Salman
  14. Aapa
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    Aapa Mirajmom

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    Salaam,

    Your response was true. However you did not answer the question that I posed. There is no shiatan asking what training should a wife partake to perpare for eternity. I am looking for sound and true instruction. In no way is this discussion anything but a serious endevor to find an answer. This is no presupposition. On the contrary, Islam is the home of all answers. I am not attempting to be rude. Islam provides rational and logical answers that satisfy all of person's intellectual, physical, spritual, and emotional needs.
    The answers may open the hearts of sisters to the wisdom of plural marriages.
  15. hussain.mahammed
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    hussain.mahammed a lonely traveller

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    As salamu alaykum wa rahmatullahi wabrakatuhu

    Jazakumullah khair brother islamicfajr and my brothers and sisters.
    We need to set up our priorities and think for the sake of our Muslim brothers and sisters, think about the Ummah not just follow our whims and desires. I agree with Aapa mirajmom. There are authentic hadeeths that number of women will grow more than men.

    If polygamy would not have been allowed, most would have followed their lusts and physical desires and ultimately disobey Allah SUbhanahu Wa Taala, falling prey to shaitan.

    We need to make our vision straight and crystal clear. The plan has already been prepared and set. Allah Subhanahu wa Taala has ordered us of our duties and responsibilities. We just need to follow it without giving a second thought.

    Or else the Ummah will keep on disuniting even though its growing large in number. These are the cracks which will haunt people forever if we dont try to shut it.

    A sister said she does not want to share her husband. What can you do if Allah has already prepared a 2nd wife for your husband? Its not upto your will or your decision my dear sister. Its the Will of Allah, the decree of Allah. We are doing things for the sake of Allah. We need to understand the fact that only following the Quran and Sunnah, we can achieve success, peace and happiness in this dunya as well as in the Akhirah.
    wa/salam
  16. Proud2BeHumble
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    Proud2BeHumble Seek Truth, Be Happy

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    :salam2:


    By Dr. Zakir Naik

    1. Hoor mentioned in the Quran
    The word hoor occurs in the Qur’an in no less than four different places:

    1. In Surah Dukhan chapter 44, verse 54
    “Moreover, We shall join them to companions With beautiful, big and lustrous eyes.” [Al-Quran 44:54]

    2. In Surah Al-Tur chapter 52 verse 20
    “...And We shall join them to companions, with beautiful, big and lustrous eyes.” [Al-Quran 52:20]


    3. In Surah Rahman chapter 55 verse 72
    “Companions restrained (as to their glances), in goodly pavilions.” [Al-Quran 55:72]

    4. In Surah Al-Waqiah chapter 56 verse 22
    “And (there will be) companions with beautiful, big and lustrous eyes.” [Al-Quran 56:22]

    2. Hoor Translated as Beautiful Maidens
    Many translators of the Quran have translated the word hoor as ‘beautiful maidens’ especially in the Urdu translations. If hoor means ‘beautiful maidens’ or girls, then they are meant only for the men. Hence, what will the women get if they enter Paradise?

    3. Meaning of Hoor
    The word hoor is actually the plural of ahwar (applicable to man) and of haura (applicable to woman) and signifies a person having eyes characterized by hauar a special quality bestowed upon a good soul, male or female in paradise and it denotes the intense whiteness of the white part of the spiritual eye.

    The Quran describes in several other verses that in paradise you will have azwaj which mean a pair or spouse or companion which means you will have spouses or companions pure and holy (mutaharratun means pure, holy).

    “But give glad tidings to those who believe and work righteousness, that their portion is gardens, beneath which rivers flow. Every time they are fed with fruit there from, they say: “Why, this is what we were fed with before”, for they are given things in similitude; and they have therein companions pure (and holy); and they abide therein (forever)”. [Al-Quran 2:25]

    “But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, We shall soon admit to Gardens, with rivers flowing beneath - their eternal home; therein shall they have companions pure and holy: we shall admit them to shades, cool and ever deepening”. [Al-Quran 4:57]

    Therefore the word hoor has no specific gender. Mohammad Asad has translated the word hoor as spouse and Abdullah Yusuf Ali as companion. Therefore according to some scholars a man in paradise will have a hoor that is a beautiful maiden with beautiful big and lustrous eyes and a woman in paradise will get a man with beautiful big and lustrous eyes. And Allah Knows the best.

    4. Women will get something exceptional in Paradise
    Many scholars say that in context, the word hoor used in the Quran refers only to ladies since gents are addressed. A reply that would be accepted by all types of people would rather be the answer given in the Hadith when a similar question was posed that if a man gets a hoor, a beautiful Maiden in Paradise, then what will the women get? The reply was that the women will get that which the heart has not desired for, the ear hasn’t heard off and the eye hasn’t seen, indicating that even the women will get something exceptional in Paradise.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    By Me:

    Regarding polygamy i dont see it as a disputed subject. There is wisdom behind this facility Allah provided in our deen. It is a practical solution in many situations.. As our deen is perfected and it must cater to the need of all the people and all time, it actually is a sound proof that these rules are from God and not from any individual.

    However, in Islam marriage is a contract. A women can write a condition in her contract that husband will not marry other than her. Moreever, if husband marry more than one, he need to be just (even if he is doing it for good cause) and this is very very big responsibility. And you know what responsibility means in Islam..!

    You may also go through this thread. Hope it will benefit.
    http://www.turntoislam.com/forum/showthread.php?t=13411

    Wasalam
  17. Aapa
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    Aapa Mirajmom

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    Salaam,

    Thank-you. In Islam there are always answers. Now I can get some sleep, InshaAllah.
  18. alkathiri
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    alkathiri As-Shafaa'i(Brother)

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    :salam2:

    JazakAllah khair akhi islamicfajr:)
  19. umm hussain
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    umm hussain Junior Member

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    Asalam alaikum

    I do not think there is any preparation a woman can do to prepare herself for sharing her husband in paradise because there will not be any jealousy, we are forgetting paradise is not the same as this life..All our feelings of jealousy, envy, hatred etc will be taken away. Just like there will not be any toilets because we are not going to be as we are now and everyone will be young and not grow old.

    Anyway just a thought I do not think any man who openly disobeys Allah, i.e maybe no beard and trousers below the ankles deserves a second wife let alone 3rd or 4th. Polygny is not as easy as some women/men think , if it is a man who truly fears Allah he will find it really difficult to commit himself to that as it requires a lot of giving and time sharing otherwise he will be held to account in the hereafter, that is why some 2nd marriages fail because people do it for the wrong reasons maybe because he was physically attracted to someone younger than his wife or because he was having problems with the first wife, these are not in my opinion reasons to marry someone else because you will lean more to one side.

    Some of the men nowadays do not seem to want to marry widows or divorcees in keeping with the sunnah so you wonder if the marriage really is about following Sunnah or following desires because I believe a marriage based on only desire and physical attraction will not last.

    And Allah knows best
  20. Aapa
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    Aapa Mirajmom

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    Salaam,

    I did a lot of thinking before I understood the wisdom behind plural marriage. It took a few years. This is serious stuff. I believe what really changed my mind were two factors.. the Prophet (swas) married several of his wives to liberate them. He took them out of destitution and made them the Mothers of the Believers. We have instruction in this. Secondly, a sister who was almost homeless reminded me of how a blessed brother could prevent a believing sister from such humilation and pain...and we thought of the women and girls who are suffering. Marriage is not about lust. Marriage is about blessings.

    Men prefer younger women. That does not diminsh the beauty of an older woman. Topic of another thread.

    May everyone have a peaceful day, InshaAllah.

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