Al Asma was Siffat

Discussion in 'Fundamental Beliefs in Islam Tawheed and Aqeedah' started by Abu Sarah, Nov 10, 2009.

  1. Abu Sarah
    sunnah
    Offline

    Abu Sarah Allahu Akbar Staff Member

    Joined:
    Aug 8, 2006
    Messages:
    3,116
    Likes Received:
    47
    Trophy Points:
    58
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    chemist
    Location:
    Egypt
    Home page:
    Ratings Received:
    +81 / 0
  2. Abu Sarah
    sunnah
    Offline

    Abu Sarah Allahu Akbar Staff Member

    Joined:
    Aug 8, 2006
    Messages:
    3,116
    Likes Received:
    47
    Trophy Points:
    58
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    chemist
    Location:
    Egypt
    Home page:
    Ratings Received:
    +81 / 0
    PRINCIPLES OF AL-ASMA WA AL-SIFAAT

    PRINCIPLES OF AL-ASMA WA AL-SIFAAT


    The following introduction was given by Ibn Taymiyyah.

    Allah (SWT)’s names and attributes are Tawqifiyyah

    They are a matter of divine text and not rational. Hence we must refer in every name to the Qur’an and the Sunnah. So the mind cannot, no matter how strong, comprehend Allah (SWT) names without to refer to the divine text.



    Therefore Allah (SWT) says: ‘don’t say what you do not have knowledge about verily your hearing and your seeing and what is in your heart are all accountable..’ [EMQ 16: 36] We must therefore refer to the Wahi.



    In addition Allah (SWT) says: ‘say: Allah (SWT) forbids all the unlawful sexual acts inner and outer and any aggression without a divine permit and to associate with Allah (SWT) without permission (i.e. an order from Allah (SWT)) and to speak about Allah (SWT) without knowledge’ [EMQ 7: 22]





    The pillars of Al-Asma – the pillars of believing in Allah (SWT)’s names:




    To believe in the name of Allah (SWT)
    To believe in the meaning of the name
    To believe in all that is related to that name.


    For example we say ‘Allah is Ar-Raheem and his attribute is Ar-Rahmah i.e. mercy and that his mercy covers everything’ the only one who can negate or restrict this is Allah (SWT) himself because he negates any mercy for the one who commits shirk.



    Allah (SWT) is Al-Qadeer and his attribute is Al-Qudra i.e. capability and he is capable of doing everything.





    What we describe Allah (SWT) is divided into six divisions:




    Description related to almighty Allah (SWT) himself – as if you say ‘Zaatun, maojudun..’ etc…when about him himself

    Sifaatun Maanawiyyah – when you say that Allah (SWT) is Al-Qadeer, Al-Aleeem etc…when we speak about his capability, not part of the Zaat but his capability

    Sifaat ul-Af’al – to do with his actions – e.g. to say that he creates or provides, they are his actions


    What is related to Tanzih Allah (SWT) – to purify him from anything being similar or like him. To purify Allah (SWT) from having any defection. For example chapter Al-Ikhlaas.


    Sifaat ul-Ijmaal or Kamaal - To do with all his Sifaat – Sifaat Haqiqiyyah, not Ma’anawiyyah. This is therefore his description by his attributes of elevation. Rabul Arshil majeed, the Lord of Al-Arsh Al-Majeed, this is sifaat ul-Kamaal.


    Sifaat ul-Ikhtiraani bayna Ismain - Description related to joint names and attributes – Al-samee ul-Aleem, so we find that in every ayah Allah (SWT) ends with two names together, this will give a completely different understanding. Aleem ul Hakeem – to have knowledge with wisdom, they go together.


    Principles – whenever someone wants to talk about his names ensure that you know the general principles.



    Principles of Asma wal Sifaat:



    1.) ITHBAAT - Affirming that which Allah (swt) affirms to himself in his book and what the Messenger Muhammad (saw) affirmed to Him without interpretation (tah’reef), nullification (ta’teeel), or resembling with creation (tamtheel), without asking how (takyeef).

    [The difference between takyeef and tafweedh is that we affirm the meaning of the asma and do not question how, those who make tafweedh do so on the meaning as well]

    We can only affirm that which Allah (swt) has affirmed about Himself, even if there is another word that means the same thing as one of His names or attributes we cannot use it to describe Him. This is because Allah (SWT) knows best about himself and the Messenger Muhammad (saw) is the best to tell us about it. Allah (swt) did not say that he is Fard so we do not affirm this to him.





    2.) NAFI - Negate that which Allah (swt) has negated about himself in His book and what His messenger Muhammad (saw) negated about Him on the condition you do so with full conviction of the perfection of Almighty Allah (swt) for the opposing meaning.

    For example Al-Sidqu is the attribute; to speak the truth, the opposite of this is to lie (al-Khadhib), we do not ask the question that is Allah (swt) al-Khadhib? or is Allah (swt) a liar? We know that Allah (swt) negates oppression and therefore has perfect justice, if we negate death then Allah (swt) La Yamoot then he has perfect life kamala Al-Hayy, this does not constitute imperfection rather it emphasises perfection. If you negate that Allah (SWT) sleeps then he has perfect Qayoum.



    3.) SIFAAT ULAAHI TAWQIFIYYAH - All attributes are tawkifiyyah (i.e. subject to text and not subject or open to reason/ration. Therefore it is irrelevant whether or not an attribute agrees or disagrees with you ration. So we do not say that he is not weak, not limited and not needy. After all, how can the ignorant introduce the almighty when he knows nothing about him. Ahl ul-Sunnah Wa al-Jamma' have a clean fitrah – natural disposition.



    4.) AL-TAWAKKUF to withhold or hold back on any abstract terms that have never been proved or mentioned to affirmed or to negate an attribute e.g. to ask which direction is Allah (swt) (this is different to asking ayn Allah) or to say that Allah (swt) is in the South or North, this is clearly wrong, the right answer should be Huwa Fi Sama. It is also wrong for the questioner to ask is Allah (swt) on the floor, in the bin, toilet etc. these types of questions are biddah. We will go to the Tafseel mentioned in the Sunnah or the Sahabah understanding – and answer like this. When the woman was asked where is Allah (SWT) she said Huwa Fis-Sama. Ahl ul-Sunnah Wa al-Jamma' will say that ‘He is above his thrown, distance from his creation’ not to think that he is sitting on it.



    5.) Any attribute transmitted or proven by definite text will inevitably agree with the pure mind or comprehension (fitra). For example if we say that Allah (SWT) is the provider we cannot say ‘how can Allah (SWT) provide for everyone around the world’ – this would negate an attribute. The Messenger of Allah (saw) requested someone to eat honey who had a upset stomach, the man ate the honey and complained saying that it made no difference, the prophet (saw) replied saying that Allah (swt) speaks the haq and your stomach is lying (Allah (swt) mentions how honey is shifa).



    6.) Prevent/cut the curiosity with regard to how the attributes look like -

    There is a principle stating that ‘whatever crosses your mind about Allah (swt), Allah (swt) is something different’

    When we affirm that Allah (swt) is above His throne and when He has both hands outstretched, we do so without delving into the how (kayf). If there is any confusion we go to the Sahabah’s understanding.

    The famous saying of Imam Malik was that Arsh is known, to believe in it is obligatory and to question it is biddah.

    ‘He knows what is between them and behind them but they do not comprehend them’ [Ta’ha:109-111]



    7.) We affirm the attributes of Allah (swt) in detail and when we negate that which does not belong to Him (applicable to him) we do so in general. We can do this with every name.

    Allah (swt) says; ‘laysa kamithlihi shay wahuwa sameeun baseer…’ [EMQ Shura: 11] – we affirm the Ghafoor, Samee’ and Baseer and negate all else. In fact this ayah is saying ‘yes negate but not what Allah (SWT) affirms for himself (wahuwa sameeun baser).



    8) Any name that has been affirmed to Allah (swt) includes an attribute but not vice versa. For example Al-Rahmaan includes the attribute of Rahma (mercy), Al-Kareem includes an attribute also, Al-Lateef includes the attribute of Lutuf. Al-Ghafoor is his name and he forgives all. From the name al-Raheem we derive the attribute of al-Rahmah, Al-Qaadir is the name of Allah (swt) from which we get the attribute of al-Qudra, likewise from the name Al-Azeem we get the attribute of al-Azama. However, from the attribute of Iraadah we cannot derive a name (al-Mureed) as the principle works only one way. Also Allah (swt) says that it is He who plots and plans (al-Makr), this is His attribute, we cannot then say that Allah (swt) is al-Makru. Also Allah (swt) says yastah’zi’ (mockery) but we cannot call him ‘the mocker’.



    9) All of the attributes of Allah (swt) are perfect and free from any defection (siffatullahi siffatul kamaal). No one will therefore say ‘How can Allah (SWT) be Al-Mutakabbur or Al-Muntaqim (the one who revenges).



    10) The attributes of Allah (swt) are related to His actions and Himself (zaatullah), and His attributes related to His actions have no end. (siffatullahi azawajjal zaatiyyah wa fi’liyyah) For example Allah (swt) is the one to account us and He is the one who provides for us, which are actions that do not stop. Allah (SWT) says that he does whatever he wishes.



    11) The evidence for affirming the attributes are in the Qur’an and Sunnah either explicit or included in the name, or explicit by action or by description indicated.

    a) Explicit from the Quran and Sunnah – al-Rahma, al-Izza, bal hum yadaan mabsootataan

    b) Implicit and included in the name - the name al-Baseer includes the attribute of al-Basr, the same is for Al-Samee’.

    c) Explicit by action – al-Rahmaan alal arsh istawa, ‘he sits above his thrown’ here the word ‘istawa’ here indicates the actions of ‘istiwa’ i.e. there is sitting.

    d) Explicit by description – mujrimeena muntaqimoon we are going to avenge from the kaafir.



    12) We seek refuge and seek oath in all the names and attributes of Allah (swt).

    For example Allah (SWT) has Ridda’ i.e. that Allah (SWT) is pleased with them. So we can seek refuge by his satisfaction from his anger. In Bukhari there is a whole chapter about ‘Swearing by Allah (SWT)’s dignity his attribute and his word’.

    It is therefore reported from the Messenger Muhammad (saw) that he said: “Oh Allah I seek refuge in your satisfaction from your anger and your forgiveness from your punishment” [Muslim, No. 486]



    13) When speaking about the sifaat of Allah (swt) it is as if we are referring to Him Zaat.

    The zaat of Allah (swt) is real and does not look like anything else as with His attributes, hence we speak about the actual attribute existing which is not like any other being and affirming his existence and attributes is not the kayf of it i.e. Affirming his Zaat exists is not affirming how.



    14) What you say about some sifaat is what you must say about other sifaat. If you confess one you confess the others, if you negate one you negate the others.

    They must all be treated in the same way i.e. if you believe in the Samr and Basr as being haqeeqi then you must believe in other sifaat as being haqeeqi as well, they must be all the same, or if you say that you believe in the Samr and basr but not the Muhabbah. If you believe in some you believe in all, but if you reject any one of them you reject them all.

    Ibn Taymiyyah said; the one who distinguishes/separates between one attribute to another and yet they are similar he contradicts himself and is like those who believe in some of the book and reject some. Therefore you must either believe them to be all haqeeqi or all majaazi, you cannot have both.

    When someone says that Allah (SWT) has nothing to do with life’s affairs he negates all others.



    15) Anything attributed/added to the Zaat of Allah (swt) without distancing it from Him is considered His attribute and not created (ghair maakhlouq), and anything that has been attributed and distanced from Him then it is creation.

    For example the hearing of Allah (swt) Samee-ullah is not distanced from Him (talaazum) and is therefore an attribute.

    But Bait ullah is distanced from Allah (swt) and is therefore created and the Arsh is distant from Allah (swt) and is therefore also created, the camel of Allah (swt) (naakatullah) is distant from Him and is therefore creation, so too is the servant of Allah (swt).

    Kalaamullah is not distanced from Allah (swt) and is therefore not creation.



    16) All the attributes of Allah (swt) and all issues of Aqeedah are proven by whatever the messenger Muhammad (saw) said even by one hadith and even if it is ahad.

    If the hadith is gharib and there is hadith mowquf explaining it then we take it, if it is just a hadith gharib on its own we do not take it. It makes sense why Imam Malik relied on the actions of ahl ul Medina.



    17) The meaning of the attributes of Allah (swt) that have been affirmed in the Qur’an and Sunnah are taken literally i.e. real/known (ma’looma) and not metaphorically, their how (kayf) is unknown.

    If an ayah mentions an attribute of Allah (swt) in a certain context then it can be said that it has a different meaning but if there is no context in the ayah then it has to be a sifaat of Allah (swt) ma’loom.



    18) It is obligatory upon every Muslim to believe on whatever is mentioned in the Qur’an and Sunnah, as far as meanings and attributes are concerned, it even if he does not understand the meaning.



    19) We should not make ta’weel if we cannot understand the names or attributes, we affirm them and just accept them as they are. We do not say ‘How does Allah (SWT) laugh’ we just mention it if the text says so. Meaning Istiwa above the thrown is known but not how.



    20) The topic of reports or news about Allah (swt) are wider than the topics about the attributes of Allah (swt). It is not tawqeefi (i.e. a matter of text only to Allah (swt)) it can apply to others. For example Al-Qadeem is one Ikhbar, one of the attributes of Allah (swt) but man can also be qadeem, another attribute of Allah (swt) is al-Shay (thing) but we have shay as well. Allah (SWT) is also Maojood but it is wider than the Sifaat. The Ulema go to what the Sahabah understand. Any attribute which is tawqifi we cannot use the mind on it but that which is not tawqifi is different.



    21) We cannot make analogy on the attributes of Allah (swt). For example ma’rifa (information) cannot be analogous to ilm (knowledge) – you cannot use other words to describe the same thing. Not a matter of analogy.



    22) Allah (SWT)’s attributes and his names have no limitation. The attributes of Allah (swt) are countless – every Ism includes an attribute and the names of Allah (swt) are endless. We cannot say 100 or 200 etc… we have been informed of 99 but that is not exhaustive.
  3. Abu Sarah
    sunnah
    Offline

    Abu Sarah Allahu Akbar Staff Member

    Joined:
    Aug 8, 2006
    Messages:
    3,116
    Likes Received:
    47
    Trophy Points:
    58
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    chemist
    Location:
    Egypt
    Home page:
    Ratings Received:
    +81 / 0
    AL IMAANU BIL SIFAAT

    AL IMAANU BIL SIFAAT


    This manhaj is importance with regards to Allah’s name and attributes, and in relation to how we believe, Tawheed of Allah is based on two points and three foundations, firstly that:

    We follow the Qur’an and Sunnah in relation to Tawheed, and
    We look to the understanding of the sahabah and follow their path.


    The three foundations of studying the names and attributes of Allah are as follows:

    Tanzeeh Ullah Purification of Allah from the creation, from the deviants,
    Al Imaanu Bil Sifaat To believe in the attributes,
    Bi laa kaif Without to know how

    Allah (swt) says,

    “The Creator of the heavens and the earth. He has made for you mates from yourselves, and for the cattle (also) mates. By this means He creates you (in the wombs). There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.” [EMQ Shura 42: 11]

    Allah first negates all similarity to man then says that he is All hearing and All seeing, showing similarity between his attributes and mans attributes though they are not the same.

    Allah (swt) says,

    “Verily, We have created man from Nutfah drops of mixed semen (discharge of man and woman), in order to try him, so We made him hearer, seer.” [EMQ Insan 76: 2]

    Allah (swt) sees and he hears all, matching with his majestic status bi laa kaif (without for us to know how), and man sees and hears what he is able to according to he is weak and limited status.

    Allah (swt) says,

    “So put not forward similitudes for Allah (as there is nothing similar to Him, nor He resembles anything). Truly! Allah knows and you know not.” [EMQ Nahl 16: 74]

    Al Imaanu Bil Sifaat is to believe in the attributes as Allah described himself, and who knows Allah better than himself? Allah (swt) says,

    “Or say you that Ibrâhim (Abraham), Ismâ'il (Ishmael), Ishâque (Isaac), Ya'qûb (Jacob) and Al-Asbât [the twelve sons of Ya'qûb (Jacob)] were Jews or Christians? Say, "Do you know better or does Allah (know better that they all were Muslims)? And who is more unjust than he who conceals the testimony he has from Allah? And Allah is not unaware of what you do." [EMQ Baqarah 2: 140]

    Sheikh Omar Bakri Muhammad said,

    “Do you know Allah or does Allah know best? And who is more oppressor than the one who conceals what Allah testified about.”

    Also we must believe in what the Messenger described Allah, as no one can describe Allah after Allah except the Messenger. Allah (swt) said,

    “I taught man all the names.”

    And He (swt) says,

    “He (saw) does not speak from his hawaa, it is only revelation revealed to him.” [EMQ Najm 53: 3-4]

    So it is obligatory upon all Muslims to believe in what Allah said about Himself and however the Messenger described Him in order to elevate and purify him from being like his creation. And whosoever makes the mistake of deviating from those two will fall down in the hole of dalal, because the one who speaks without knowledge is a fool and claims to have perfect knowledge, and whosoever claims so is a liar. The one who thinks that the attributes of Allah is similar to mans attributes is a fool and a kaafir.

    Whereas the one who believes that Allah’s attributes, elevating and purifying him from his creation, affirming his attributes how Allah describes Himself without to ask how, is a Mu’min. Allah (swt) says,

    And it will be said to them: "Where are those (the false gods whom you used to set up as rivals with Allah) that you used to worship "Instead of Allah? Can they help you or (even) help themselves?" "Instead of Allah? Can they help you or (even) help themselves?" Then they will be thrown on their faces into the (Fire), They and the Ghâwûn (devils, and those who were in error). And the whole hosts of Iblis (Satan) together. They will say while contending therein, By Allah, we were truly in a manifest error, When We held you (false gods) as equals (in worship) with the Lord of the 'Alamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists); And none has brought us into error except the Mujrimûn [Iblis (Satan) and those of human beings who commit crimes, murderers, polytheists, oppressors, etc.]. [EMQ Shu’ara 26: 92-99]

    The theologists divide Allah’s attributes to six divisions,

    1. sifaat al nafsiyyah -

    2. sifaat al ma’ani - meaning

    3. sifaat al ma’nawiyyah - metaphorical

    4. sifaat al fi’liyyah - functions

    5. sifaat al salbiyyah

    6. sifaat al jaamiyyah

    Anything not in these six, they say that it is not including.

    Ash’aris say that for any attributes apart from 8, they will make interpretation, whereas the Mu’tazilah make interpretation in all attributes because they do not want to separate any attributes from him, they argue about ‘is Allah one unit or many units?’

    However Allah (swt) describes Himself and man, and includes many attributes that seem to have similarity He says that He has qudra and He says that man has qudra, He says,

    “And to Allah belongs the unseen of the heavens and the earth. And the matter of the Hour is not but as a twinkling of the eye, or even nearer. Truly! Allah is Able to do all things.” [EMQ Nahl 16: 77]

    and

    “Except for those who (having fled away and then) came back (as Muslims) with repentance before they fall into your power; in that case, know that Allah is Oft *!Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [EMQ Ma’idah 5: 34]

    Allah has strength and power matching his majesty, and man has strength according to his capability, and there is a world of difference between the strength of Allah and that of man. Furthermore, He (swt) says,

    “Verily! Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due; and that when you judge between men, you judge with justice. Verily, how excellent is the teaching which He (Allah) gives you! Truly, Allah is Ever All *!Hearer, All *!Seer.” [EMQ Nisa 4: 58]

    and Allah (swt) says,

    “Verily, We have created man from Nutfah drops of mixed semen (discharge of man and woman), in order to try him, so We made him hearer, seer.” [EMQ Insan 76: 2]

    Again Allah (swt) demonstrates what seems to be a similarity in the Attributes of Allah (swt) and that of man, However, the seeing and hearing of man is not the same as Allah, Allah has seeing and hearing in matching with his majesty, and man has seeing and hearing according to his weakness, and there is a world of difference between the seeing and hearing of Allah and that of man.

    Allah (swt) says,

    “Allah! Lâ ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists. Neither slumber, nor sleep overtake Him. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission? He knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter. And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills. His Kursî]extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.” [EMQ Baqarah 2: 255]

    and He (swt) says,

    “Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, and then We parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?” [EMQ Anbiyah 21: 30]

    The life of man is not the same as Allah, That Allah has life matching his majesty, and man has life according to his weakness, and there is a world of difference between the life of Allah and of man.

    And Allah (swt) does whatever he wishes, Allah (swt) says,

    “They will dwell therein for all the time that the heavens and the earth endure, except as your Lord wills. Verily, your Lord is the doer of what He wills.” [EMQ Hud 11: 107]

    and

    “Verily, (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) the Grip (Punishment) of your Lord is severe. Verily, He it is Who begins (punishment) and repeats (punishment in the Hereafter) (or originates the creation of everything, and then repeats it on the Day of Resurrection). And He is Oft-Forgiving, full of love (towards the pious who are real true believers of Islamic Monotheism); Owner of the throne, the Glorious He does what He intends (or wills).” [EMQ Buruj 85:12-16]

    and

    “They (the disbelievers, the Jews and the Christians) want to extinguish Allah’s Light with their mouths, but Allah will not allow except that His Light should be perfected even though the Kafirun (disbelievers) hate (it).” [EMQ Taubah 9: 32]

    Also, Allah (swt) says,

    “If an idolater seeks asylum with you, give him protection in order that he hears the Word of Allah, and then convey him to his place of safety, because they are a nation who do not know.” [EMQ 9: 6]

    The Qur'an is the kalaam – word of Allah (swt), it is his attribute, However Allah (swt) also testified that man also has kalaam, that man also speaks and has words, Allah (swt) says,

    “So be it between me and you,' said Moses.’Whichever of the two terms I fulfil, it will be no injustice to me. Allah is the Guardian of what we say.” [EMQ 28: 28]

    and Allah (swt) says,

    “If you do not bring him to me, you shall receive no measure (of corn) from me, nor shall you come near me (again). They replied: 'We will ask our father for him. This we will surely do. Then he said to his attendants: 'Put their merchandise in their saddlebags, hopefully they will recognize it when they return to their people. Perhaps they will come back. When they returned to their father, they said: 'Father, we have been denied the measure. Send our brother with us and we shall receive our measure. We will indeed look after him.' He replied: 'Am I to trust you with him as I once trusted you with his brother? Why, Allah is the Best of guardians, and He is the Most Merciful of the Merciful. When they opened their saddlebags, they found that their merchandise had been given back to them. 'Father,' they said 'what more do we desire? Look, our merchandise has been returned to us. We will receive provisions for our family and we will look after our brother. We shall receive an extra camel-load. That is an easy measure.' He replied: 'I will never send him with you until you swear by Allah that you will bring him back to me, unless you are prevented.' And when they had given him their oath, he said: 'Allah is the Guardian of what we say.' Then he said: 'My sons, do not enter from one gate. Enter through different gates. I cannot be of any help to you against Allah; judgement belongs to Allah alone. In Him I have put my trust. In Him let all put their trust.’ And when they entered from where their father had instructed them, nothing helped them against (the decree of) Allah. It was but a need in Jacob's soul which he had fulfilled. He possessed knowledge because of what We had taught him, though most people do not know.” [EMQ 12: 60-68]

    and Allah (swt) says,

    “The king said: 'Bring him before me. I will assign him to myself.' And when he had spoken with him he said: 'Today, you are firmly established in both our favour and trust.'” [EMQ 12: 54]

    However there is a world of difference between the kalaam of Allah (swt) and the kalaam of mankind, the word of Allah (swt) matches with his majesty and his status, and the kalaam of man is within his limits and matches his weakness.

    So we find that in Al Tawheed, and in our belief in Allah (swt) we cannot innovate anything into our Imaan, we cannot make interpretations of the verses of the Qur'an, we have no right to interpret and change the meaning of the saying of Allah (swt) about his names and attributes. Rather, whenever we study a topic we must do so according to the Qur'an and the Sunnah, and we must not do so innovating our own understanding of the revelation, but rather we must follow the understanding of the companions of Muhammad (saw). There is no doubt that the Sahabah (companions of Muhammad (saw)) are the best to understanding Islam, they had the best teacher - i.e. the Messenger Muhammad (saw), they had the closest relationship to the revelation as they were the ones to live in the time and place that it was revealed, they were the ones personally addressed by Allah (swt) in the Qur'an, they were the ones to whom Allah testified Imaan in their hearts, there is no one after them, no matter how knowledgeable or pious who is guaranteed paradise the way Allah testified in the hadith that "Abu Bakr Al Siddiq is in Jannah, that Umar ibn Khattab is in Jannah, Uthman ibn Affan is in Jannah, Ali ibn Abu Talib is in Jannah..." They are the ones who spread Islam after Muhammad (saw), they were the ones who compiled the Qur'an, they were the ones who narrated the Sunnah, they were the ones who struggled with Muhammad (saw) and lived Islam with him - It is impossible for anyone to claim that they understand Islam better than them. This is why, if we ever find ourselves in dispute, if we ever find ourselves differing in any matter we should refer back to them, tehy are the Islamic Standard (or criteria), we should compare ourselves and our opinions with their opinions, the opinions of Ahl Al Sunnah Wal Jama'ah (i.e. the Prophet (saw) and his companions).

    Therefore, when we find that the ummah differ on the names and attributes of Allah (swt), when we find people interpreting the names of Allah (swt), negating and rejecting the attributes of Allah (swt), though they may do so with good intention; to elevate and purify Allah (swt) from His creation there is no way to accept it from them. This is because when we compare this form of elevation with the standard, we find that the elevation of Ahl Al Sunnah Wal Jama'ah was the elevation of Tawheed and Tathabbut, not of interpretation (ta'weel). we find that the Sahabah and all the scholars of Ahl Al Sunnah Wal Jama'ah elevated and purified Allah (swt) by believing in all His names and attributes literally and completely, without interpretation, without any rejection, without any Tafweedh (leaving the matter to Allah without to reach a decision) and without to wonder or ask 'how?'. This is the Aqeedah of the Sahabah of Muhammad (saw), and we find that the companions never differed in these matters, rather this innovation came from people after them who had deviated from their path, May Allah protect us all and make us firm on the manhaj of the salaf.
  4. Abu Sarah
    sunnah
    Offline

    Abu Sarah Allahu Akbar Staff Member

    Joined:
    Aug 8, 2006
    Messages:
    3,116
    Likes Received:
    47
    Trophy Points:
    58
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    chemist
    Location:
    Egypt
    Home page:
    Ratings Received:
    +81 / 0
    Fruits of Al-Asma wal Sifaat

    Fruits of Al-Asma wal Sifaat




    "And to Allah belongs the most beautiful names, call him by them…" (EMQ 7: 180)

    "Verily Allah has ninety-nine names, a hundred less one. Whosoever memorises them (and understands them) has entered Paradise." (Saheeh Muslim #2677)

    For the Muwahhid (Monotheist i.e. Muslim) there is no need for him to call anyone other than Allah (swt). This is because firstly it is Shirk, and secondly because Allah (swt) has ninety-nine beautiful names and thus has left us with no excuse to call upon anyone other than him.There are many virtues of studying the names and attributes of Allah (swt). The hadeeth which has been mentioned above gives us more than enough encouragement and motivation to learn His names and attributes; but there are also worldly benefits in doing so.

    Knowledge of Allah's names and attributes will shape and influence the personality and behaviour of a Muslim. It will also motivate him to meet his lord, depend on him, understand him and know what he (swt) likes and dislikes. As the old saying goes, 'if you love someone you will know everything about him/her.' How much do we really know about Allah (swt)?

    We claim that we love none but him, but do we really know what angers him and what pleases him?Before we study Allah's names and attributes, we must first be aware and understand the purpose of studying His names and attributes. There are two main purposes of studying the names and attributes of Allah (swt):

    1. To have knowledge about Him i.e. who we are calling and relying upon

    2. To know what He likes and dislikesThe reason why we must learn about what Allah (swt) likes and dislikes is in order for us to abstain from those things which He detests. We must also only love those whom He loves, and hate whom He hates. This is the nature of true love as you can never ally with the one who hates the one you love.

    Al-Asmaa' was-Sifaat – The names and attributes

    A person could be so stingy but his name could be Kareem (generous). This is an example which is very common today. People often have names which do not suit them at all. However, this is completely the opposite with the names of Allah (swt). All of His names suit him and describe Him in the best way.There is a difference between the names and attributes of Allah, in the sense that Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah believe that from Allah's names we can derive attributes, but from His attributes we cannot derive any name. For example, Allah has the name ar-Rahmaan (the Merciful) and He has the attribute of Rahmah (mercy). Therefore ar-Rahmaan is His name and Rahmah is His attribute. However, Allah (swt) describes himself with certain attributes, such as plotting against the Kuffaar. Allah says:

    "…They plotted and Allah plotted, and Allah is the best of those who plot" (EMQ 8: 30).

    In this verse Allah describes himself with an attribute of plotting. And indeed He does plot against the Kuffaar and Munaafiqeen. However, from this attribute of His, we cannot call him al-Maakir (the one who plots); despite the fact that He plots against the enemies of Islam. Likewise, Allah (swt) says in the Qur'aan that he will terrorise the Kuffaar because of the Shirk they commit. However, this does not mean that we can call Him the Terrorist.

    This is because Allah (swt) did not give himself this name, despite the fact that it is one of His attributes i.e. to terrorise. Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah only affirms to Allah what He affirms to himself and negates what Allah negates.Another example of this principle is that Allah (swt) has the attribute of loving and hating.

    However, despite this fact we cannot call Him the Lover of the Hater. This is because Allah never gave himself these names and neither did His final messenger to mankind (saw). Therefore, to conclude; we can derive attributes from His names, but we cannot derives names from His attributes.

    Some fruits of studying the names and attributes of Allah

    1. You will love what He (swt) loves

    When you love someone, you would want to know everything about them, spend time with them and like what they like, hate what they hate. If we love Allah as we should, we should also love His attributes. Allah (swt) says, "I forbid upon myself oppression." Therefore, out of love to Him we should also hate oppression; this is because you can never love someone and also love what they hate. The fact that Allah (swt) is generous, it should also make us generous as we love whatever our Lord loves.

    2. You will always feel secure and be loved by Allah (swt)

    The Messenger Muhammad (saw) said:

    "When Allaah loves a servant he calls Jibreel and says to him, ‘I love so and so, so love him...’’ (Al-Bukhaari #7485)

    Therefore loving what Allah loves will make you closer to Him. And the one who is close to Allah, He (swt) will put love into the hearts of the angels for that person and Allah (swt) will always shadow that person with His protection and mercy.

    3. Your Taqwaa and Eemaan will increase

    Knowing Allah's names such as al-'Aleem, as-Samee' and al-Baseer will always make you think twice before you try to commit any sin. This is because when you know that Allah is al-'Aleem (the Most Knowledgeable) you will always be aware that nothing will ever happen without Allah to know about it. Also, when you know that Allah (swt) is as-Samee' (the All-Hearer) and al-Baseer (the All-Seer), your chances of doing haraam will decline completely as you will be aware that Allah hears and sees every single thing that you say and do.

    4. You will never despair and lose hope in Allah

    When you know that Allah (swt) is al-Ghafoor (the Forgiver) and ar-Rahmaan, you will never lose hope in Allah (swt) as you know that he is always ready to accept our repentance. Therefore the true Muwahhid will never lose hope in his Lord or start to think that he will never be forgiven and it is too late for him to change.

    5. You will never feel weak and over powered When you know that Allah (swt) is al-'Azeez (the Almighty), al-Qahhaar (the Dominator), al-Mutakabbir (the Arrogant), you will never feel humiliated, weak or defeated by seeing the artilleries, numbers or weaponry of the Kuffaar. This is because no matter how power they seem to be, nobody can match with the power of Almighty Allah.

    They maybe dominating us at the moment but Allah (swt) is al-Qahhaar and will dominate them in this dunyaa and in the Hereafter for eternity. And no matter how arrogant they may seem, Allah (swt) is al-Mutakabbir and he will be arrogant with them in the Hereafter when he makes them taste one of his most fierce of creations – Jahannam. There are many more fruits and virtues of studying Allah's names and attributes, but in order to gain these you must study and understand every single one of his names.

Share This Page