Belief in Allah (subhaanahu wa ta'aala)

Discussion in 'Fundamental Beliefs in Islam Tawheed and Aqeedah' started by ditta, Jul 29, 2009.

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    v) The Fingers of the Most Merciful

    Allah has Fingers which in no way resemble the fingers of any of His creation. They befit His Perfection and Majesty, the All-Glory and Exalted. In the Bukhari and Muslim, it is narrated from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ood that a Jew came to the Prophet :saw: and said,

    “O’ Muhammad, Allah holds the heavens on one Finger, the earth on one Finger, the mountains on one Finger, the trees on one Finger and all creatures on one Finger, and He says, ‘I am the Soverign’”

    The Messenger of Allah :saw: smiled so broadly that eyeteeth could be seen, then he recited:

    They made not a just estimate of Allah such as is due to Him...


    (39:67)


    According to another version: The Messenger of Allah :saw: smiled in amazement and confirmation.

    (Bukhari, 13,393, hadith no. 7414; Muslim, 4/2147, hadith no. 2786)


    It is narrated that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr al-‘Aas (may Allah be pleased with them both) heard the Prophet :saw: say:


    “The hearts of the sons of Adam are all as one heart between two of the fingers of the Most Merciful, and He directs them as He wishes.”

    Then he said:

    “O’ Allah, Director of the hearts, direct our hearts towards obedience to You,”

    (Muslim, 4/2045, hadith no. 2655)
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    vi) What has been mentioned concerning His Foot

    Al-Bayhaqi used this as a title in his book Al-Asmaa’ wa’s-Sifaat (348), where he mentioned a number of ahaadeeth:


    a) A hadith is narrated by Bukhari and Muslim from Anas ibn Malik that the Prophet :saw: said:


    “Hell will keep saying, ‘Are there any more?’ until the Lord of Glory will put His Foot on it, then it will say, ‘Enough, enough, by Your Glory!’ Then it will shrink into itself.”

    According to some reports:

    “And there will still be extra space in Paradise until Allah creates people for it and cause them to dwell in the extra space of Paradise.”

    (Bukhari, 8/594, hadith no. 4848, 4849; Muslim, 4/2187m 2188m hadith no. 2848. This version is narrated by Muslim)
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    b) It is narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said:

    “Paradise and Hell engaged in a debate, Hell said: ‘I was created to take the arrogant and the tyrannical.’ Paradise said, ‘Why is it that no one will enter me except the weak and lowly among mankind?’ Allah said to Paradise: ‘You are My Mercy, by which I will show mercy to whomsoever I will among My slaves.’ And He said to Hell: ‘You are My Punishment by which I will punish whomsoever I will among My slaves. Each of you will have its fill.’ The Fire will not be filled until Allah puts His Foot, and it says, ‘Enough, enough, enough!’ Then it will be filled and will shrink into itself. And Allah does not treat any of His creation unjustly. As for Paradise, Allah will create people for it [to fill it].”

    (Bukhari, 8/595, hadith no. 4850; Muslim, 4/2186, hadith no. 2846. This version is narrated by Muslim)



    c) It is narrated that Ibn Abbaas said concerning the Kursiy,


    ...His Kursiy extends over the heavens and the earth...

    (Quran 2: 255)

    - It is the place for the feet (i.e. a footstool).

    (See Mukhtasar al-Aluw by Dhahabi, Pp. 102. The editor Shaykh Naasiruddeen al-Albaani said: this is saheeh mawqoof, and attributed it to Ibn Khuzaymah in At-Tawheed, 71-72; to Daarimi in Ar-Radd ‘ala’l-Mareesi, 71, 73-74; and Ibn Abi Shaybah in Al-‘Arsh, 2/114.)
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    vii) Allah, the Exalted, has a Shin

    It is obligatory for us to believe in this and not to deny it, because He – the Exalted – has told us of it.

    Allah (The Exalted) says:

    [Remember] the Day when the Shin shall be laid bare [i.e. the Day of Resurrection] and they shall be called to prostrated themselves [to Allah], but they [hypocrites] shall not be able to do so.

    (Quran 68: 42)


    There are reports in Bukhari and Muslim which explain this aayah and make it clear. It is narrated that Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri said: I heard the Messenger of Allah :saw: say:

    “Our Lord will lay bare His Shin, and every believing man and believing woman will prostrate to Him. There will be left those who used to prostrate in the world in order to show off and gain a good reputation. Such a one will try to prostrate, but his backbone will become a single (solid) piece (and he will not be able to prostrate).”

    (Bukhari, 8/664, hadith no. 4419; Muslim, 1/167, hadith no. 183. This version is narrated by Bukhari.)

    We must note here that affirming that Allah has a Shin is like affirming that He has a Hand, hearing, sight and any other attributes.

    What has been narrated from Ibn Abbaas, who interpreted laying bare the Shin as referring to the seriousness of the matter, contradicts what is proven from Ibn Mas’ood, that our Lord will lay bare His Shin.


    (Fath al-Qadeer by Ash-Shawkaani, 5/319)

    How well Ash-Shawkaani spoke when he said: Allah has given us sufficient interpretation of this aayah in the saheeh (sound) reports narrated from the Messenger of Allah. This does not imply thinking in physical or anthropomorphic terms, for there is nothing like unto Him.

    (Ibid, 5/320)

    Ibn Jareer at-Tabari and Ibn Katheer narrated the Tafseer of Ibn Abbaas, just as they also neared the hadith which explain the text of the Qur’an. They did not interpret the hadith in any way different than its apparent meaning, which indicates that they did not see any contradiction between the hadith and the view of Ibn ‘Abbaas. The master will indeed be serious on the Day of Resurrection, and this does not contradict the idea that Allah will lay bare His Shin.
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    viii) His rising over the Throne

    The Throne is the greatest thing in all of creation, and Allah (The Exalted) refers in seven places in His Book to His rising over the Throne, by saying,

    The Most Gracious [Allah ] rose over [Istawaa] the [Mighty] Throne [in a manner that suits His Majesty]

    (20: 5)


    The evidence that the Throne is one of the things created by Allah (The Exalted), the Almighty:

    ...And eight angels will, that Day, bear the Throne of your Lord above them.

    (69: 17)

    - i.e. on the Day of Resurrection.

    Those [angels] who bear the Throne [of Allah] and those around it glorify the praises of their Lord, and believe in Him, and ask forgiveness of those who believe...

    (40: 7)


    Allah (The Exalted), tells us that the Throne has bearers, and that they seek forgiveness for the believers. This negates the view of those who say that the Throne refers to Allah’s Sovereignty of Dominion [Al-Mulk].

    According to a hadith narrated by Bukhari,

    “When you ask Allah, ask Him for Al-Firdaws, for it is the middle of Paradise and is the highest part of Paradise. Above it is the Throne of the Most Merciful, and from it spring forth the rivers of Paradise.

    (Bukhari, 13/404, hadith no. 7423)

    Bukhari narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah :saw: said:

    “Do not prefer me over Moosa, for the people will fall unconscious on the Day of Resurrection; I will be the first to regain consciousness, and Moosa will be there, holding on to the side of the Throne. I do not know whether Moosa will be one of those who fell unconscious and then woke up before me, or whether he was one of those whom Allah exempted (from falling unconscious).

    (Bukhari, 11/367, hadith no. 6517, 6518; the hadith is also narrated by Muslim, 4/1834, hadith no. 2373)


    According to a report narrated by Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri:

    “Moosa will be there, holding on to one of the pillars of the Throne.”

    (Ibid, 13/405, hadith no. 7427)


    How can the Throne not be one of the things created by Allah (The Exalted), when it is the roof of Al-Firdaws. How can Moosa hold onto one of the pillars of the Throne if it is not something that has been created?


    The Messenger :saw: said:

    “When Allah completed His creation, He wrote down with Himself above His Throne: My mercy precedes My wrath.”

    (Ibid, hadith no. 7422)
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    The great size of the Throne

    Allah has described His Throne as being Great (‘Azeem):

    ...And Lord of the Great Throne.

    (Qur’an 23: 86)


    The Messenger :saw: described the Throne as being great in two way ways:

    a) By telling us of the great size of the angels who carry the Throne. In Sunan Abi Dawood it is narrated with a saheeh (sound) isnad that the Messenger :saw: said
    :

    “I have been granted permission to speak about one of the angels of Allah, one of the bearers of the Throne. The space between his earlobes and his shoulders is the distance of seven hundred years’ travelling.”

    (Abu Dawood, 3/895, hadith no. 3953)



    b) The Messenger described the size of the Throne by contrasting its size with the size of the heavens and the kursiy. He :saw: said:

    “The seven heavens in comparison to the kursiy are like no more than a ring thrown out into an empty field, and the superiority of the Throne in relation to the kursiy is like the superiority of that field in relation to that ring.”

    (Narrated by Muhammad ibn Abi Shaybah in Kitaab al-‘Arsh, by Al-Bayhaqi in Al-Asmaa wa’s-Sifaat, by Ibn Jareer and by others. It is saheeh (sound) when all its isnads are taken together. See Shaykh Al-Albaani’s comments on its isnaad in Silsilat al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah, hadith no. 109)
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    Allah praises Himself by mentioning His rising over the Throne

    The Lord praises Himself by stating that He has risen over His Throne:

    Ta-Ha. [These letters are one of the miracles of the Qur’an, and none but Allah (Alone) knows their meanings.] We have not send down the Qur’an unto you [O’ Muhammad] to cause you distress, But only as a Reminder to those who fear [Allah]. A Revelation from Him [Allah] Who has created the earth and high heavens. The Most Gracious [Allah] rose over [Istawaa] the [Mighty] Throne [in a manner that suits His Majesty].

    (20: 1-5)


    He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days and then rose over [Istawaa] the Throne [in a manner that suits His Majesty]. He knows what goes into the earth and what comes forth from it, and what descends from the heaven and what ascends thereto. And He is with you [by His Knowledge] where-so-ever you may be. And Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.

    (57: 4)


    And Allah (The Exalted), praises Himself on more than one occasion as being the Master of the Throne:


    Owner of the Throne, the Glorious, [He is the] Doer of what-so-ever He intends [or wills].

    (85: 15-16)


    ...Then they would certainly have sought out a way to the Lord of the Throne.

    (17: 42)


    And Allah (The Exalted), praises Himself as being the Lord of the Throne:


    ...In Him I put my trust and He is the Lord of the Mighty Throne.

    (9: 129)


    ...Glorified is Allah, the Lord of the Throne, [High is He] above all that [evil] they associate with Him!


    (21:22)


    Say: ‘Who is [the] Lord of the seven heavens, and [the] Lord of the Great Throne'?

    (23:86)


    ‘Abdullah ibn Rawahah praised his Lord in couplets as follows:

    “I bear witness that the promise of Allah is true,

    And that the Fire is the abode of the kaafireen (disbelievers),

    And that the Throne is floating above the water.

    And above the Throne is the Lord of the Worlds.

    And it is borne by noble angels,

    Angels of the Lord.”


    This couplet was transmitted by Ibn ‘Abdul-Barr in Al-Isti’aab, where he says:

    We have narrated it through saheeh isnads.

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    The meaning of His rising over the Throne (istiwaa)

    We do not know how Allah (The Exalted), rose over the Throne, because we do not know how He is, but we know the meaning of istawaa in the Arabic language. When the Arabs follow the word istawaa with the preposition ‘ala, they mean four things: settling, going over, rising above and ascending, as was affirmed by Ibn al-Qayyim.

    (Sharh al-Waasittiyah by Al-Harraas, Pp. 80)


    Abu’l-Hasan al-Ash’ari narrated that the Mu’tazilah interpreted the phrase -

    rose over [Istawaa] the Throne

    (57: 4)


    - as meaning that He possessed or took control of it.


    (Maqaalaat al-Islamiyeen, Pp. 157, 211)

    Whoever interprets this phrase in this manner should note that his predecessors in this regard are the Mu’tazilah, and what bad presecessors they are.

    The Ahl as-Sunnah and scholars of hadith affirm that Allah rose over the Throne. They do not deny it, but they do not discuss how it happend, as Abu’l-Hasan al-Ash’ari (may Allah have mercy on him) narrated from them.


    (Maqaalaat al-Islamiyeen, Pp. 211, 290)

    Scholars of the Arabic language have narrated to us that the scholars whose fitrah has not been contaminated with alien phiosphy refuse to interpret istawaa as meaning istawla (possess, take control).

    Dawood ibn ‘Ali al-Isbahaani said:


    I was with Ibn al-A’rabi and a man came to him and asked, What is the meaning of the aayah.

    The Most Gracious [Allah] rose over [Istawaa] the [Mighty] Throne [in a manner that suits His Majesty].

    (20: 5)


    Ibn al-A’rabi said:

    He is on His Throne as He has told us.

    He said,

    O’ Abu ‘Abdullah, does it now mean istawla (possess, taken control)?


    Ibn al-A’rabi said:


    How can you know that?

    The Arabs do not say istawla unless there are two people competing for a throne, then whichever them prevails, they describe as istawla.


    (Lisaan al-‘Arab, 2/249)


    This method, which is acknowledging the meaning of istiwaa whilst not seeking to know how, is the method of the righteous salaf. When Imam Maalik was asked about the aayah -

    The Most Gracious [Allah] rose over [Istawaa] the [Mighty] Throne [in a manner that suits His Majesty].

    (20: 5)


    - and was asked how He rose over it, he paused and broke out in a sweat.

    Then he raised his head and said:

    The Most Gracious rose over the Throne, as He described Himself. We do not ask how, because one cannot ask how with regard to Allah. You are guild of bid’ah (innovation), throw him out.

    (Al-Bayhaqi, and classed as saheeh by Adh-Dhahabi. See Mukhtasar al-‘Uluw li’l-‘Aliy al-Ghaffaar, by Adh-Dhahabi, Pp. 141, hadith no. 131.)


    According to another report, Maalik said:


    How is incomprehensible, istiwaa is not unkown, belief in it is obligatory, and asking about it is bid’ah.

    (See Mukhtasar al-Aluw, Pp. 141, hadith no. 132)


    The phrase ‘not unknown’ means it is known; what is known is its meaning, because the word has a meaning in Arabic which the Arabs understand, and which scholars can explain and interpret. Hence many of those who narrated the above view from Imam Maalik narrated the meaning from him, and they mentioned that he replied to the man as follows:

    “Istiwaa is known, how is unknown, believing in it is obligatory and asking about it is bid’ah.”

    (Tafseer al-Qurtubi, 2/219)

    In fact there is no difference between saying that istiwaa is known and saying that it is not unknown – the meaning is the same.

    Qurtubi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

    “The first generation – may Allah be pleased with them – did not deny direction (with regard to Allah), and they did not say anything to that effect. They affirmed direction in accordance with what Allah had said in His Book and what His Messenger had told them.

    No one denies that He rose over His throne in a real sense. This applies only to the Throne because it is the greatest thing in His creation. But we do not know how He rose over it, because we cannot know the true nature of this.

    Maalik said: The istiwaa is known – i.e. in the linguistic sense – but how it happened is unknown, and asking about it is bid’ah, as Umm Salmah (may Allah be pleased with her said. And this is sufficient.


    (Ibid)
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    ix) Where is Allah?

    Allah (The Exalted), has told us that He is in the heavens, above His Throne:

    Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven [Allah], will not cause the earth to sink with you, and then it should quake? Or do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven [Allah], will not send against you a violent whirlwind? Then you shall know how [terrible] has been My Warning.

    (Qur’an 67: 16-17)


    The Messenger :saw: told us that His Lord is in the heavens. It is narrated from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah :saw: said:

    “Do you not trust me when I am the trustee of the One Who is in heaven, and the Revelation comes to me from heaven morning and evening?”

    (Bukhari, 8/66, hadith no. 4351; Muslim 2/742, hadith no. 1064, 1/382, hadith no. 537. Also narrated by Abu Dawood, 1/175, hadith no. 823; 3/632, hadith no. 2809)


    And he testified that the slave girl was a believer when she told about him that Allah was in heaven. It is narrated that Mu’aawiyah ibn al-Hakam al-Sulami beat a slave girl of his for being careless in minding his sheep. Then he regretted it, and came to the Messenger of Allah :saw: to express his regret and ask for his permission to set her free.

    The Messenger :saw: called for the girl and asked her,

    “Where is Allah?


    She said,

    “In heaven.”

    He asked,

    “Who am I?”


    She said,


    “You are the Messenger of Allah.”


    He said,

    “Set her free, for she is a believer.”


    (Muslim, 1/382, hadith no. 537; Abu Dawood, 1/175, hadith no. 823; 3/632, hadith no. 2809)

    The Messenger :saw: taught the sick person to pray himself or for his brother with this du’ua (supplication) in which it is stated that Allah (The Exalted), is in the heaven:

    “O’ our Lord Allah, Who are in heaven, sanctified be Your Name, Your Command prevails in the heavens and earth. As Your Mercy is in heaven, make Your Mercy on earth. Forgive us our mistakes and sins. You are the Lord of the good. Send down Your Mercy and healing from Your healing upon this pain and heal it.”

    (Abu Dawood, 4/16, hadith no. 3892)


    According to a hadith narrated by ‘Abdullah ibn Amr, the Messenger of Allah :saw: said:

    “The merciful will be shown mercy by the Most Merciful. Have mercy on those who on earth, so that the One Who is in the heaven will have mercy on you.”

    (Tirmidhi, 2/180, hadith no. 1569. Tirmidhi said: a saheeh hasan hadith.)
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    The meaning of His being in heaven

    The phrase “Allah is in the heaven” does not mean that He is contained by its physical dimensions – Glorified and Exalted be He far above that. What is meant by heaven is highness and being above. Allah (The Exalted), has described Himself as being the Most High:

    Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High.


    (87: 1)


    And as the Most High, the Most Great:


    ...His Kursiy extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.

    (2: 255)

    The All-High, tells us that He is above His slaves:

    They fear their Lord above them, and they do what they are commanded.

    (16: 50)


    And He is the Irresistible [Supreme], above His slaves...


    (6: 18)


    When the Messenger :saw; praised his Lord in his du’aa’, he said:

    “And You are, and there is none above You.”

    (Muslim, 4/2084, hadith no. 2713)


    Zaynab used to boast to the other wives of the Messenger :saw:

    “Your families arranged your marriages, but my marriage was arranged by Allah from above the seven heavens.”

    (Tirmidhi, 3/92, hadith no. 2566)


    The Muslim cannot understand his aqeedah (creed) properly if, when he thinks that Allah is in the heavens, he thinks that the heavens contain Him and that He is limited by the physical dimensions of the heavens. Glorified be He far above such a thing. How can that be, when the heavens are nothing in relation to Him?

    ...And the heavens will be rolled up in His Right Hand...

    (39: 67)


    And [remember] the Day when We shall roll up the heaven like a scroll rolled up for books...

    (21: 104)
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    Extensive Evidence

    The evidence in the Qur’an and Sunnah which shows that Allah (The Exalted), is in the heavens, above His slaves, is very clear and in abundance. To quote it all would take too long. But we can arrange it in the following categories:

    1) Evidence which states clearly that He is in the heavens. We have mentioned this above

    2) Evidence which states that He is in the heaven. We have quoted this above.

    3) Evidence which proves that He is High, and that He is above His slaves. We have mentioned some of this above.

    4) Texts which indicate that some of the things He has created are with Him.


    Surely, those [angels] who are with your Lord are never too proud to perform acts of worship to Him...

    (7: 206)


    And Allah (The Exalted) says concerning the shuhadaa (martyrs):

    ...Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision.

    (3: 169)


    And there are many other similar texts.


    5) Texts which state that some things are raised or ascent to Him, such as the aayaat which clearly state that ‘Eesa ibn Maryam (Jesus) (Peace be upon him) was raised up to Him:

    But Allah raised him [‘Eesa (Jesus)] up [with his body and soul] unto Himself...


    (4: 158)


    And texts which state that good deeds ascend to Him:

    ...To Him ascend [all] the goodly words, and the righteous deeds exalt it...

    (35: 10)


    And texts which state that the souls of the believers ascend to Him:

    Verily, those who belie Our Aayaat [proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc] and treat them with arrogance, for them the gates of heaven will not be opened...

    (7: 40)


    The texts indicate that the gates of heaven will be opened for the believers, and numerous ahaadeeth explain this.

    Another example is that the angels ascend to Him:

    The angels and the Rooh [Jibreel (Gabriel)] ascend to Him...

    (70: 4)


    6) And Allah (The Exalted), tells us that the angels descend:

    He sends down the angels with the Rooh [Revelation] of His Command...

    (16: 2)


    And He tells us that He sent down His Books:

    And this [the Qur’an] is a blessed Book which We have send down...

    (6: 92)


    7) And there is the raising of one’s hands and eyes to Him. There are many ahaadeeth in which it is stated that the Messenger :saw: raised his hands when making du’aa’, and everyone who is stricken with distress raises his hands when calling upon Allah, the Almighty.

    Similarly, the gaze is also lifted, as is narrated in the reports of the du’aa’ (supplication) after wudoo (ablution).


    8)
    Another example is the way in which the Prophet :saw; pointed upwards with his finger, as in the hadith describing his Farewell Pilgrimage, when they said:


    “We bear witness that you have conveyed the message and fulfilled (your mission) and advised us sincerely.”

    Then he pointed with his forefinger towards the heavens and then towards the people, and said:


    ‘O’ Allah, bear witness!” O’ Allah, bear witness!”


    (Abu Dawood, 1/358, hadith no. 1905. A very similar hadith is narrated in Bukhari and Muslim, but I could not find any mention there of the Messenger raising his forefinger towards the heavens and then towards the people. (Author))

    If you want to learn more about the evidence and the views of the Salaf (pious predecessors) of this ummah, then refer to what the scholars have compiled on this topic in their books.
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    His being All-High does not contradict His being close

    Allah (The Exalted), is close and answers the call of the one who calls upon Him. He knows their secret ideas and their secret counsels. He is closer to the one who calls upon Him than the neck of his riding-beast. He knows what hearts whisper to themselves, and He is closer to (His slaves) that their jugular veins. He knows the secret and that which is yet more hidden. He knows what sinks into the earth and what emerges there-from, what comes down from the heavens and what ascends thereto. He is with His creation by His knowledge and power. Nothing what-so-ever of them is hidden from Him.

    And nothing is hidden from your Lord (so much as) the weight of an atom (or small ant) on the earth or in the heaven. Not what is less than that or what is greater than that. He is close although He is Most High, and He is Most High although He is close. He is the First (nothing is before Him) and the Last (nothing is after Him), the Most High (nothing if above Him) and the Most Near (nothing is nearer than Him) (cf. Qur’an 57: 3).
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    x) The laugh of our Lord, the Exalted

    Allah laughs at when He wills and as He wills. We believe in that and affirm it, but we do not know how it happens, nor are we required to know that.

    Several saheeh (sound and authentic) reports have been narrated concerning that:

    1) It is narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah :saw: said:

    “Allah laughs at two men, one of whom killed the other but they will both enter Paradise. One fought for the sake of Allah and was killed, then Allah accepted the repentance of the killer, then he died as a shaheed (martyr).”

    (Bukhari, 6/39, hadith no. 2826; Muslim, 3/1504, hadith no. 1890. This version is narrated by Bukhari)




    2) It is narrated from Abu Hurayrah that a man came to the Prophet :saw: and said:


    “O’ Messenger of Allah, I am tired and hungry.”

    He sent word to his wives, and they did not find anything (to offer) him.
    The Messenger of Allah :saw:


    “Will any man host him tonight. Allah will bless him?”


    A man from among the Ansaar stood up and said,


    “I will do it, O’ Messenger of Allah.”

    He went to his family and told his wife,

    “The guest of the Messenger of Allah – do not withhold anything from him.”


    She said,


    “By Allah, I do not have anything except food for the children.”


    He said,

    “When the children want their supper, get them to sleep, them come and extinguish the lamp, and we will leave our stomachs empty tonight.”

    So she did that. The next day he came to the Messenger of Allah,, who said:

    “The All-Glory and Exalted liked and appreciated – or he said, He laughed at – the action of So-and-so and So-and-so (this couple(.”

    Then Allah (The Exalted), revealed the words:

    ...And give them [emigrants] preference over themselves even though they were in need of that...


    (Qur’an 59: 9)


    (Bukhari, 8/631, hadith no. 4889; Muslim, 3/1625, hadith no. 2054. This version is narrated by Bukhari)
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    3) There is a lengthy marfoo‘ hadith in Bukhari narrated from Abu Hurayrah, it says:

    “Then Allah (The Exalted), will finish judging among His slaves, and there will be left a man with his face in the direction of Hell. He will be the last of the people of Hell to enter Paradise.

    He will say,


    ‘O’ Lord, turn my face away from the Fire, for its smell is disturbing me and its heat is burning me.’ So he will keep praying to Allah as long as He wills that he should pray.

    Then Allah will say,


    ‘If I give you that, will you ask Me for anything else?’


    He will say,


    ‘No, by Your Glory, I will not ask anything else?’

    And he will give whatever promises he wants to his Lord. Then Allah will turn his face away from the Fire. When he turn towards Paradise and sees it, he will remain silent for as long as Allah wills that he should remain silent, then he will say:

    ‘O’ Lord, bring me to the gate of Paradise.’

    Allah will say to him,

    ‘Did you not give me your solemn promise that you would not ask Me for anything else ever again? Woe to you, O’ son of Adam, how treacherous you are!’

    Then he will say,

    ‘O’ Lord,’

    And we will pray to Allah until He says:

    ‘Perhaps if I give you that, you will not ask for anything else.’

    He will give whatever promises he wants. So he will be brought close to the gate of Paradise, and when he stands at the gate of Paradise, it will become apparent to him what is in Paradise, the joys and delights that exist therein. Then he will remain silent for as long as Allah wills that he should remain silent, then he will say:

    ‘O’ Lord, admit me to Paradise.’


    Allah will say to him,


    ‘Did you not give me your solemn promise that you would not ask Me for anything else ever again? Woe to you, O’ son of Adam, how treacherous you are?’


    Then he will say,


    ‘O’ Lord, I do not want to be the most miserable of Your creation.’

    And he will keep on praying until Allah will laugh at him, and when Allah laughs at him, He will say:


    ‘Enter Paradise.’”

    (Bukhari, 13/420, hadith no. 7437)

    According to a report narrated by Muslim from the hadith of ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ood, Allah will say to that man:

    “Will it not please you if I were to give you the world and another the like thereof?

    He will say,


    ‘O’ Lord, are You mocking me when You are the Lord of the Worlds?’

    The Messenger of Allah laughed, and they said,

    ‘Why are you laughing, O’ Messenger of Allah?’

    He said,


    ‘Because the Lord of the Worlds will laugh when (that man) says, ‘Are You mocking me when You are the Lord of the Worlds?’


    - And He will say,


    ‘I am not mocking you, but I am able to do whatsoever I will.’”

    (Muslim, 1/175, hadith no. 187)
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    xi), xii) Descending and Coming of the Exalted

    It is narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah :saw: said:

    “Our Lord – the All-Glorious, All-High – comes down every night to the nearest heaven, when one-third of the night remains. He says: ‘Whoever calls upon Me, I will answer him, and whoever asks of Me, I will give him, and whoever seeks forgiveness of Me, I will forgive him.’”

    (Bukhari, 3/29, hadith no. 1145; Muslim, 1/521, hadith no, 758. This version is narrated by Bukhari)

    The Qur’an states that Allah (The Exalted), will come on the Day of Resurrection to pass judgement:


    Do they then wait for anything other than that Allah should come to them in the shadows of the clouds and angels? [Then] the case would be already judged. And to Allah return all matters [for decision].


    (2: 210)


    Nay! When the earth is ground to powder. And You Lord comes with the angels in rows.

    (89: 21-22)


    It is narrated from Ibn Mas’ood (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah :saw: said:


    “Allah will gather together the first and the last for an appointed time, forty years, when they will be looking up at the heavens, waiting for judgement to be passed, and Allah will come in the shadows of clouds from the Throne to the Kursiy.”

    (By Ibn Mandah, Adh-Dhahabi said: its isnad is hasan. A group of scholars who had memorised ahaadeeth and were well-verse in the criticism thereof classed it as saheeh (sound), such as Al-Haakim, Al-Mundhiri and Al-Haythami.)
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    xiii) The speech of Allah

    Allah (The Exalted), speaks when He wills and in the manner He wills. His speech does not resemble the speech of any of His creatures. Allah spoke to some of His creation, and they spoke with Him, such as the Prophet of Allah, Moosa (Moses) (Peace be upon him):

    ...And to Moosa Allah spoke directly.

    (4: 164)


    And when Moosa came at the time and place appointed by Us, and his Lord [Allah] spoke to him;..
    .

    (7: 143)

    Allah (The Exalted), mentioned for us the talks between Him and Moosa:...

    He said: ‘O’ my Lord! Show me [Yourself], that I may look upon You.’ Allah said: ‘You cannot see Me, but look upon the mountain; if it stands still in its place then you shall see Me.’ So when his Lord appeared to the mountain, He made it collapse to dust, and Moosa fell down unconscious. Then when he recovered his senses he said: ‘Glory be to You, I turn to You in repentance and I am the first of the believers.’ [Allah] said: ‘O’ Moosa I have chosen you above men by My Messages, and by My speaking [to you]. So hold that which I have given you and be of the grateful.’

    (7: 143-144)


    Allah (The Exalted), spoke to Adam and Hawwa’ (Eve):

    ...And their Lord called out to them [saying]: ‘Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily, Shaytaan [Satan] is an open enemy unto you?’

    (7: 22)


    Allah speaks to Jibreel (Gabriel) (Peace be upon him): It is narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said; the Messenger of Allah :saw: said:


    “When Allah, the All-Glorious, All-High, loves a slave, He calls out Jibreel: ‘Verily Allah loves So and so, so love him.’ Then Jibreel loves him, and calls out to the people of heaven: ‘Verily Allah loves So and so, so love him.’ Then the people of heaven love him, and Allah causes him to find acceptance among the people of the earth.”


    (Bukhari, 13/461, hadith no. 7485; Muslim, 4/2030, hadith no. 2637. This version is narrated by Bukhari.)


    The Angels hear their Lord when He speaks. It is narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet :saw: said:

    “When Allah decrees a matter in the heaven, the angels beat their wings in submission to His decree, (with a sound like) a chain striking a rock. When fear is banished from their hearts, they say, ‘What is it that your Lord has said?’ They say, ‘The truth, and He is the Most High, the Great.’”

    (Bukhari, 13/453, hadith no.. 7481)


    This hadith is narrated by Bukhari to explain the aayah:

    Intercession with Him profits not except for him whom He permits. So much so that when fear is banished from their [angels’] hearts, they [angels] say: ‘What is it that your Lord has said?’ They say: ‘The truth. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.’

    (34: 23)


    Bukhari devoted a chapter to this aayah, then he said:

    But he did not say what your Lord created. He has transmitted all the reports narrated by Masrooq from Ibn Mas’ood that ends with him (Masrooq) – mu’allap mawqoof, under this chapter. It says:

    “When Allah speaks with the Wahy (Revelation/inspiration), the people of the heavens hear something, and when fear is banished from their hearts and the sound has ceased, they know that it is the truth, and they call out, What did your Lord say?


    Yet there is another mu’allaq hadith transmitted by Jaabir from ‘Abdullah ibn Unays, who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah :saw: say:

    “Allah will gather His slaves and will call them with a voice which will be heard from afar as clearly as it will be heard from up close: ‘I am the Sovereign, I am the Judge.’”

    (Bukhari, 13/452)


    Bukhari in his book, Khalq al’aal al-‘Ibaad (creation of the deeds of Allah’s slaves), commenting on this hadith said:

    This proves that the voice of Allah does not resemble the voices of His creation, because the voice of Allah can be heard from afar as clearly as it can be heard from nearby, and the angels swoon from His voice.

    (Khalq Al’aal al-‘Ibaad, Pp. 149)


    Allah (The Exalted), speaks with a voice that does not resemble any of the voices of His creation at all, as stated in the hadith narrated by Bukhari from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri, who stated: The Messenger of Allah :saw: said:


    “Allah will say, ‘O’ Adam!’ and he will say, ‘At Your service.’ Then a voice will call out: ‘Allah commands you to send forth from your progeny those who are to be sent to Hell.’”

    (Bukhari, 13/453, hadith no. 7483. See also 8/441, hadith no. 4741. Muslim 1/201, hadith no. 222. This version is narrated by Bukhari.)

    On the Day of Resurrection, He (The Exalted), will speak to His angels:

    And [remember] the Day when He will gather them all together, then He will say to the angels: ‘Was it you that these people used to worship?’ They [the angels] will say: ‘Glorified be You! You are our Wali [Lord] instead of them. Nay, but they used to worship the jinn; most of them were believers in them.’

    (Qur’an 34: 40-41)


    And He (The Exalted), will address the disbelievers and the deniers (of the truth), rebuking them:

    And [remember] the Day when We shall gather out of every nation a troop of those who denied Our Aayaat [proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations], and [then] they [all] shall be driven [to the place of reckoning], till, when they come [before their Lord at the place of reckoning], He will say: ‘Did you deny My Aayaat [proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations] whereas you comprehended them not by knowledge [of their truth or falsehood], or what [else] was it that you used to do?’

    (27: 83-84)


    And He (The Exalted), will greet the people of Paradise with salaam:
    [It will be said to them]: Salaam [peace be upon you] – a Word from the Lord [Allah], Most Merciful.

    (36: 58)


    Allah (The Exalted), will speak to them. It is narrated from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri that the Prophet :saw: said:


    “Allah will say to the people of Paradise:

    ‘O’ people of Paradise!’

    They will say,

    ‘At Your service, all good is in Your hand.’

    He will say,

    ‘Are you content?’

    They will say,

    ‘How could we not be content, O’ Lord, when You have given us what You have not given to anyone else among Your creation?’

    He will say,


    ‘Shall I not give you something even better than that?’


    They will say,

    ‘O’ Lord, what can be better than that?’


    He will say,

    ‘I grant you My pleasure and I will never be angry with you again after that.’”


    (Bukhari, 13/487, hadith no. 7518; Muslim, 4/2176, hadith no. 2829. This version is narrated by Bukhari)
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    Allah’s speech is not limited or restricted

    Allah (The Exalted), says:

    Say [O’ Muhammad to mankind]: ‘If the sea were ink for [writing] the Words of my Lord, surely, the sea would be exhausted before the Words of my Lord would be finished, even if We brought [another sea] like it for its aid.’

    (Qur’an 18: 109)
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    The Qur’an is truly the Word of Allah

    The Qur’an is undoubtedly the Word of Allah. Allah (The Exalted), says:

    And if anyone of the Mushrikoon [polthiests, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah] seeks your protection then grant him protection so that he may hear the Word of Allah [the Qur’an]...

    (9: 6)

    Those who lagged behind will say, when you set forth to take the spoils, ‘Allow us to follow you.’ They want to change Allah’s Words. Say: ‘You shall not follow us; thus Allah has said beforehand.’...

    (48: 15)

    And if all the trees on the earth were pens and the sea [were ink wherewith to write], with seven seas behind it to add to is [supply], yet the Words of Allah would not be exhausted...

    (31: 27)


    Ibn Katheer said in his Tafseer of this aayah (verse):

    (Tafseer ibn Katheer, 5/394)


    Here Allah (The Exalted), refers to His Might, Pride, Majesty, Beautiful Names, Sublime Attributes and Perfect Words which none can encompass, and whose nature and essence none can know, as the Master of mankind [i.e. the Prophet :saw:] said:

    “I cannot praise You sufficiently; You are as You have praised Yourself.”

    (Muslim, 1/353, hadith no. 486)


    Allah (The Exalted), says:

    And if all the trees on the earth were pens...

    (31:27)


    Meaning, even if all the trees on earth were made into pens, and the seas were made into ink, and even seven times as many seas were provided along with that, to write down the words of Allah indicating His Might, Attributes and Majesty, the pens would break and the sea would run dry, even if more seas were brought.

    Al-Hasan al-Basri said: If the trees of the earth were made into pens, and the sea was made into ink, and Allah (The Exalted), were to say, My Decree is such and such, My Decree is such and such..., the sea would run dry and the pens would break. Allah indeed spoke the truth when He said:


    ...And of knowledge, you [mankind] have been given only a little.

    (17: 85)
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    xiv) The love of Allah

    It is stated in the Qur’an and Sunnah that Allah (The Exalted), loves certain deeds, certain words and some of His creation who have certain characteristics which He has stated He loves.

    He has told us that so that we may strive to attain these characteristics that He loves and do the deeds that He loves, and utter the words that He loves. Thus He will love us.


    Allah (The Exalted), loves the pious:


    ...Surely, Allah loves Al-Muttaqeen (the pious).

    (Qur’an 9: 4)


    He (The Exalted), loves those who do good:

    ...Verily, Allah loves Al-Muhsineen (the good-doers).


    (Qur'aan 3: 134)


    He (The Exalted) loves those who repent to Him and purify themselves:

    ...Truly, Allah loves those who turn unto Him in repentance and loves those who purify themselves.


    (Qur'aan 2: 222)

    He (The Exalted) loves those who are patient:

    ...And Allah loves As-Saabireen (the patient).

    (Qur'aan 3: 146)


    He (The Exalted) loves those are just:


    ...Verily, Allah loves those who act justly.

    (Qur'aan 5: 42)


    He (The Exalted) loves those who put their trust in Him:

    ...Certainly, Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him).

    (Qur'aan 3: 159)

    He (The Exalted) loves those who fight for His sake in ranks:


    Verily, Allah loves those who fight in His Cause in rows (ranks) as if they were a solid structure.

    (Qur'aan 61: 4)


    Saheehayn (Bukhari and Muslim) narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah :saw: said:

    “Two words which are light on the tongue but they are heavy in the Balance and are beloved to the Most Merciful: Subhaan Allahi wa bi hamdihi, Subhaan Allahil-‘Azeem. (Glory and praise be to Allah, glory be to Allah the Almighty)

    (Bukhari, 11/206, hadith no. 1406; Muslim, 4/2072, hadith no. 2694)

    It is narrated that Sumrah ibn Jundub said: The Messenger of Allah :saw: said:

    “The most beloved of speech to Allah if four (phrases): Subhaan Allahi wa’l-hamdu Lillaahi wa laa ilaaha illa-Allahu wa Allahu Akbar (Glory be to Allah, praise be to Allah, there is no god except Allah, and Allah if Most Great). And it does not matter which of them you start with.”

    (Muslim, 3/1685, hadith no. 2137)

    The Prophet :saw: said to Ashajj ‘Abd al-Qays:

    “You have two characteristics which Allah loves: patience and deliberation.”

    (Ibid, 1/48, hadith no. 17)


    It is narrated from ‘Ubaadah ibn as-Saamit that the Prophet :saw: said:

    “Whoever loves to meet Allah, Allah loves to meet him; whoever hates to meet Allah, Allah hates to meet him.”

    (Ibid, 4/2065, hadith no. 2684)


    All the actions, attitudes and words that Allah loves are those which were brought by the Messenger :saw: or which were part of his character. Hence Allah stated in a comprehensive aayah that the way to earn His love is to follow the Messenger :saw::

    Say (O’ Muhammad to mankind): “If you (really) love Allah, then follow me (i.e. accept Islamic Monotheism, follow the Qur’an and the Sunnah), Allah will love you...

    (Qur'aan 3: 31)
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    xv), xvi) Allah’s hatred and anger

    There are actions which Allah does not love; in face He hates them and is angry with them. His hatred and anger are real in a manner that befits His noble nature. Among these actions is fasaad (corruption or mischief):

    ...And Allah likes not mischief.

    (Qur’aan 2: 205)


    ...And Allah does not like the Mufsideen (mischief-makers).

    (Qur'aan 5: 64)


    It is also stated in the texts that Allah does not like the kaafiroon (disbelievers), zaalimoon (wrongdoers or oppressors), extravagant, aggressors, betrayers and those who exult in their riches. He does not like such as are product and boastful (cf. Qur’an 4: 36), the disbelievers and sinners (cf. Qur’an 2: 276), or those who betray their trusts and indulge in crime (cf. Qur’an 4: 107).


    In the Qur’an it says:

    ...But Allah was averse to their being sent forth, so He made them lag behind...

    (Qur'aan 9: 46)


    We have mentioned above the hadith in which Allah (The Exalted), says:

    “Whoever hates to meet Allah, Allah hates to meet him.”

    (Muslim, 4/2065, hadith no. 2684)

    It is narrated from ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) that: the Prophet :saw: said:

    “The most hated of men to Allah is the tough and argumentative type.”


    (Bukhari, 13/180, hadith no. 7188; Muslim, 4/2054, hadith no. 2668)


    It is narrated from Al-Baraa’ ibn ‘Aazib that he heard the Messenger of Allah :saw: say concerning the Ansaar:


    “Whoever loves them, Allah will love him, and whoever hates them, Allah will hate him.”


    (Bukhari, 7/113, hadith no. 3783; Muslim, 1/85, hadith no. 75)

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