Did Quraysh Persecute Muslims When They Fled To Madinah ?

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    Did Quraysh Persecute Muslims When They Fled To Madinah ?

    By Kaleef K. Karim & Aliyu Musa Misau
    Source

    Introduction:​

    Missionaries and other critics often repeat the baseless ‘claim’ of ‘atrocities’ committed by Muhammad (p) against Quraysh, glossing over the fact that these incidents they injudiciously referred to as “atrocities” were nothing but just responses to the attacks initiated by the Quraysh, and continued even when the Muslims fled to Medina, fleeing persecution.

    For instance, some try to justify Muhammad (p) and his followers being persecuted, tortured and killed just for expressing their beliefs in Mecca! They claim that what the Quraysh were doing to Muhammad (p) and the Muslims then was a direct result of Muhammad’s (p) preaching against their polytheism, idolatry. So they try to justify thirteen years of persecution and torture by blaming Muhammad (p) for preaching Monotheism; that the Muslims deserved what they got for exercising their right of free speech, their right to express their conscience.

    This is the sick mind of some who try to justify crimes committed against a minority. I guess freedom of speech is not applicable to Muslims!

    It is our intention, in a number of articles in the pipeline, to deal with the claims that the Muslims were not the ones who started hostilities against the Quraysh, to show that the claim is not supported by the earliest Islamic sources. In this very article, we will see that the evidences shows that it was the Quraysh who started physically attacking the Muslims, making them flee from their birth-place Makkah to Madinah, to escape the persecution and still followed them down to Medina to exterminate them just for their beliefs.

    Our primary interest in these articles will be when the Prophet (p) and his followers arrived in Medina, fleeing persecution. What happened when they arrived in Medina? Did the Muslims start war against Quraysh as soon as they arrived in Madina? Or was it the other way around?

    The Evidence:

    The evidences used for this work are taken from most authoritative and canonical sources of Islam, the Quran and Hadith. We have also used the biography of Muhammad (p) (Sirat Rasulullah).

    Click on the following links for more information:

    1. LINK – Quraysh threatened to murder inhabitants of Madina for giving sanctuary to the persecuted Muslims.

    2. LINK – When the Prophet (p) arrived in Madina he couldn’t sleep. He had to have guards near him, he believed that the Quraysh were still out to kill him.

    3. LINK – Sa’d Ibn Mu’adh’s Lesser Pilgrimage to Mecca, where he was confronted by Abu Jahl, threatening to kill him for giving safe haven to Muslims in Madinah.

    4. LINK – The Prophet (p) Used to forgive the Quraysh enemies while in Madina, until verses of fighting were revealed.

    5. LINK – The Quraysh declared war against Muslims before the battle of Badr ensued.

    6. LINK – The Prophet (p) sent Abdullah Ibn Jahsh to Nakhlah to collect information on what the Quraysh were doing.

    7. LINK – Expedition against Kurz b. Jabir al-Fihri, he raided camels and cattle of Madinah.

    8. LINK – Property of Muslims stolen – robbed by the Quraysh in Makkah, and continued oppressing Muslims while they fled to Madinah.
    Last edited: Jan 8, 2017
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    Quraysh Threatened Madinah’s Leaders For Giving Sanctuary To Muslims

    Fleeing persecution and finding a sanctuary in Medina, the Muslims might have thought it to be the end of the persecution and oppression they sustained at the hands of the polytheistic Quraysh in Mecca. But, far from it, the Quraysh became more determined to attack and kill the Muslims down there at Medina. Abdur-Rahman ibn Ka’b ibn Malik reported that the polytheistic leaders of Mecca wrote letters to Abdullah ibn Ubay and other leaders of Medina. That if they wouldn’t drive the Muslims out of Medina, they would come and slaughter everyone there. This incident occurred before the battle of Badr. The reports state:

    Abu Dawud:

    “AbdurRahman ibn Ka’b ibn Malik reported on the authority of a man from among the companions of the Prophet (p): The infidels of the Quraysh wrote (a letter) to Ibn Ubayy and to those who worshipped idols from al-Aws and al-Khazraj, while the Apostle of Allah (p) was at that time at Medina before the battle of Badr. (They wrote): You gave protection to our companion. We swear by Allah, you should fight him or expel him, or we shall come to you in full force, until we kill your fighters and appropriate your women. When this (news) reached Abdullah ibn Ubayy and those who were worshippers of idols, with him they gathered together to fight the Apostle of Allah (p). When this news reached the Apostle of Allah (p), he visited them and said: The threat of the Quraysh to you has reached its end. They cannot contrive a plot against you, greater than what you yourselves intended to harm you. Are you willing to fight your sons and brethren? When they heard this from the Prophet (p), they scattered. …” (Abu Dawud Book 19, Hadith 2998)



    Kitab al-Maghazi – Ma’mar ibn Rashid:

    “The disbelievers of Quraysh wrote to Abd Allah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul and also to those members of the Aws and Khazraj tribes who were idolaters. This occurred while the Messenger of God resided in Medina but before the incident at Badr. The disbelievers said: ‘You have given shelter to our tribesman, and you remain the more numerous of Medina’s inhabitants. We swear by God that you had better either kill him or expel him, or else we will rally the Arabs to help us and march against you in our full numbers, slaying your warriors and ravishing your women!’
    When word of this reached ibn Ubayy and the idolaters who were with them, they exchanged messages and convened. They dispatched a message to the Quraysh, agreeing to murder the Prophet and his companions. When the Prophet caught wind of this, he and a band of his men confronted them, saying: ‘The threats of the Quraysh have certainly wreaked havoc upon you. They didn’t beguile you nearly as much as you wish to beguile yourselves. You are the ones who seek to kill your own sons and brothers.’ When they heard the words the Prophet had spoken, they dispersed and went their separate ways, and words of these matters reached the infidel Quraysh.” (Kitab al-Maghazi, Ma’mar Ibn Rashid, page 67) [1]

    From the above early canonical reports, we are told that once they finished reading the letter that were sent by the Quraysh to the leaders of Medina, Abdullah ibn Ubai, and his companions gathered together all their men in order to wage war against Muhammad (p) and his people. Notice, Muhammad (p) and his people just left Mecca, fleeing persecution, yet here again the Quraysh followed them and inciting the Medinans against them!

    The Quraysh pursued them down there for more persecution just for the Muslims changing their former faith from polytheism to Islam.

    When the news reached the Muslims that Abdullah ibn Ubai, and his men were preparing to kill the Muslims based on Quraysh instigations, the Prophet (p) went over to them and told them that the Quraysh threatening them had an implication, that what they (the pagan Quraysh) had planned for them was far worse than what they planned against the Muslims:

    “The threat of the Quraysh to you has reached its end. They cannot contrive a plot against you, greater than what you yourselves intended to harm you. Are you willing to fight your sons and brethren? When they heard this from the Prophet (p), they scattered.” (Abu Dawud Book 19, Hadith 2998)
    When Abdullah ibn Ubai and his men heard this profound speech made by Prophet Muhammad (p), they all went away and abandoned the plan of fighting the Muslims.

    In this we see a marvellous example of what a great leader Prophet Muhammad (p) (p) was. He was able in a short speech to bring an end to a civil war happening in the Madinan community. After the Quraysh had clearly declared war on the Muslim community in Medina, the Muslims were given permission to fight against the Quraysh.

    Reference:

    [1] The Expeditions (‘Kitab al-Maghazi’) – An Early Biography Of Muhammad By Ma’mar Ibn Rashid [Translated: Sean W. Anthony – Copyright 2014 by New York University], page 67
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    Prophet Feared He Would Be Killed Had To Have Guards Near Him
    By Discover The Truth

    Orientalists and other critics have for years depicted Prophet Muhammad (p) as a violent aggressor and warmonger. At the same time the enemies of Muslims are portrayed as victims. Even though Muhammad (p) and his followers were persecuted, tortured and some even murdered for over a decade long, critics like to gloss over these facts and present Muhammad (p) as aggressor for defending his community.

    They say that the Muslims in Mecca were opportunistic; they claim that Muhammad (p) and his followers were weak at Mecca and didn’t have the man power to fight pagan Quraysh and thus called for peace. They further claim that once Muslims left Mecca (fleeing persecution) to Madina, Muhammad’s (p) community grew strong, and he came in power and hence he used that opportunity to wage war against the Quraysh. What critics leave out is that persecution of Quraysh against the Muslims continued even when the Muslims left Makkah to Medina.

    So for them to brand the Quraysh as some kind of victims who didn’t do nothing to deserve to be retaliated against is nothing but bald-faced lie to defame the character of Prophet Muhammad (p).

    We have a number of historical Hadiths that show us the reality about Muslims when they lived in Medina. It gives us a picture that the Muslims did not live comfortable lives due to fear of the Quraysh. They were constantly in fear that the Quraysh will come to Medina and kill them.

    The following Hadith tells us that when Prophet Muhammad (p) fled persecution from Mecca to Medina (Yathrib), he couldn’t sleep and had to have guards near him.

    Sahih Muslim:

    “A’isha reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him) lay on bed during one night and said: Were there a pious person from amongst my companions who should keep a watch for me during the night? She said: We heard the noise of arms, whereupon Allah’s Messenger said: Who is it? And Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas said: Allah’s Messenger. I have come to serve as your sentinel. ‘A’isha said: Allah’s Messenger slept (such a sound sleep) that I heard the noise of his snoring.” (Sahih Muslim Book 31, Hadith 5925)​

    Sahih Muslim:

    “A’isha reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him) laid down on bed during one night on his arrival at Medina and said: Were there a pious person from amongst my Companions who should keep a watch for me during the night? She (A’isha) reported: We were in this state that we heard the clanging noise of arms. lie (the Holy Prophet) said: Who is it? He said: This is Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas. Allah’s Messenger said to him: What brings you here? Thereupon he said: I harboured fear (lest any harm should come to) Allah’s Messenger, so I came to serve as your sentinel. Allah’s Messenger invoked blessings upon him. He then slept. This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Ibn Rumh with a slight variation of wording.” (Sahih Muslim Book 31, Hadith 5926)​

    Jami at-Tirmidhi:

    “Narrated ‘Aishah: “The Messenger of Allah did not sleep one night upon arriving in Al-Medina. So he said: ‘If only a righteous man would guard me tonight.'” She said: “So we were like that, when we heard the clanging of weapons. He said: ‘Who is this?’ So he said: ‘Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas.’ So the Messenger of Allah said: ‘What has brought you?’ Sa’d said: ‘Fear for the Messenger of Allah came upon me, so I came to protect him.’ So the Messenger of Allah supplicated for him, then slept.” (Jami` at-Tirmidhi Volume 1, Book 46, Hadith 3756)
    Sahih al-Bukhari:

    “Narrated Aisha: One night the Prophet was unable to sleep and said, “Would that a righteous man from my companions guarded me tonight.” Suddenly we heard the clatter of arms, whereupon the Prophet said, “Who is it?” It was said, “I am Sa`d, O Allah’s Messenger! I have come to guard you.” The Prophet then slept so soundly that we heard him snoring. Abu `Abdullah said: `Aisha said: Bilal said, “Would that I but stayed overnight in a valley with Idhkhir and Jalil (two kinds of grass) around me (i.e., in Mecca).” Then I told that to the Prophet.” (Sahih al-Bukhari Vol. 9, Book 90, Hadith 337)
    From the above authentic Hadith, we see that the Makkans were still after the Prophet (p), otherwise he wouldn’t have asked for guards to protect him so he gets some sleep, especially since he was 100s miles away from Mecca.

    This gives us proof that Muhammad (p) and his followers were still hounded by the Quraysh for their beliefs. This shows, whatever missionaries and critics alike claim about Muslims, that they were safe in Medina, is false. They are trying to absolve the criminal Quraysh of any wrong doing, and thus the Muslims had no right to fight back. But as the evidences has shown, the Muslims were still hounded by the Quraysh. So the claim by them that Muslims were ‘safe in Madinah’ is not true, nor is it backed up historically.
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    Sa’d Ibn Mu’adh’s Lesser Pilgrimage (Umrah) To Makkah

    The Quraysh Testing the Muslims​

    In spite of Muslims fleeing persecution and settling in Medina, the Quraysh were still determined to destabilize and continue persecuting the Muslims. As already pointed out, the Quraysh polytheists wrote letters to the leaders of Medina, ordering them to drive the Muslims out of Medina or else they threatened to come down to kill their children, their wives, making no distinction whether Muslim or non-Muslim.

    An interesting incident happened concerning Sa’d ibn Muadh. Sa’d bin Muadh went to Mecca to perform Umrah (minor pilgrimage). As he was there circumambulating the Kab’ah, he was confronted by Abu Jahl.

    Abu Jahl knew whom he was. He was one of those who gave safe sanctuary to the Muslims in Medina. Abu Jahl was very angry at Sa’d Ibn Muadh for giving safety to the Muslims. The reports give us the following information:

    Sahih al-Bukhari

    “Sa`d bin Mu`adh came to Mecca with the intention of performing `Umrah, and stayed at the house of Umaiya bin Khalaf Abi Safwan, for Umaiya himself used to stay at Sa`d’s house when he passed by Medina on his way to Sham. Umaiya said to Sa`d, “Will you wait till midday when the people are (at their homes), then you may go and perform the Tawaf round the Ka`ba?” So, while Sa`d was going around the Ka`ba, Abu Jahl came and asked, “Who is that who is performing Tawaf?” Sa`d replied, “I am Sa`d.” Abu Jahl said, “Are you circumambulating the Ka`ba safely although you have given refuge to Muhammad and his companions?” Sa`d said, “Yes,” and they started quarrelling. Umaiya said to Sa`d, “Don’t shout at Abi-l-Hakam (i.e. Abu Jahl), for he is chief of the valley (of Mecca).” Sa’d then said (to Abu Jahl). ‘By God, if you prevent me from performing the Tawaf of the Ka’ba, I will spoil your trade with Sham.” Umaiya kept on saying to Sa`d, “Don’t raise your voice.” and kept on taking hold of him. Sa`d became furious and said, (to Umaiya), “Be away from me, for I have heard Muhammad saying that he will kill you.” Umaiiya said, “Will he kill me?” Sa`d said, “Yes.” Umaiya said, “By God! When Muhammad says a thing, he never tells a lie.” Umaiya went to his wife and said to her, “Do you know what my brother from Yathrib (i.e. Medina) has said to me?” She said, “What has he said?” He said, “He claims that he has heard Muhammad claiming that he will kill me.” She said, By Allah! Muhammad never tells a lie.” So when the infidels started to proceed for Badr (Battle) and declared war (against the Muslims), his wife said to him, “Don’t you remember what your brother from Yathrib told you?” Umaiya decided not to go but Abu Jahl said to him, “You are from the nobles of the valley (of Mecca), so you should accompany us for a day or two.” He went with them and thus Allah got him killed.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari: volume 4, Book 56, Hadith 826)


    Musnad Ibn Hanbal:

    “3794. It was narrated that Abdullah said: Sa’d bin Mu’adh set out to do Umrah and he stayed with Safwan bin Umayyah bin khalaf. When Umayyah went to Syria and passed by Medina he used to stay with Sa’d. Umayyah said to Sa’d: Wait until midday, when there are not many people around, then go and do tawaf. Whilst Sa’d was doing tawaf, Abu Jahl came to him and said: Who is this who is circumambulating the Ka’bah in safety? Sa’d said: I am Sa’d. Abu Jahl said: Are you circumambulating the Ka’bah in safety when you have given refuge to Muhammad? And they traded insults. Umayyah said to Sa’d: Do not raise your voice to Abul-Hakam, for he is the leader of the people of the valley. Sa’d said to him: By Allah, if you prevent me from circumambulating the House, I shall certainly cut off your trade with Syria. Umayyah kept saying: Do not raise your voice to Abul-Hakam, and he tried to hold him back. Sa’d got angry and said: Leave us alone, for I heard Muhammad (p) saying that he going to kill you. Umayyah said: Me? He said: Yes. He said: By Allah, Muhammad (p) does not tell lies. Then when they left, he went back to his wife and said: Do you know what the Yathribi [i.e. Sa’d] said to me? And he told her about it. When the call for mobilization came and they set out for Badr, his wife said: Don’t you remember what your brother the Yathribi said? He wanted not to go out, but Abu Jahl said to him: You are one of the nobles of the valley; come with us for a day or two. So he went with them, and Allah, may He be exalted and glorified, caused him to be killed.” (Musnad Ibn Hanbal, volume 3, page 369 – 370) ​

    Sahih al-Bukhari:

    “Sa’d bin Mu’adh was an intimate friend of Umaiyah bin Khalaf and whenever Umaiyah passed through Medina, he used to stay with Sa`d, and whenever Sa`d went to Mecca, he used to stay with Umaiya. When Allah’s Messenger (p) arrived at Medina, Sa`d went to perform `Umra and stayed at Umaiya’s home in Mecca. He said to Umaiya, “Tell me of a time when (the Mosque) is empty so that I may be able to perform Tawaf around the Ka`ba.” So Umaiya went with him about midday. Abu Jahl met them and said, “O Abu Safwan! Who is this man accompanying you?” He said, “He is Sa`d.” Abu Jahl addressed Sa`d saying, “I see you wandering about safely in Mecca inspite of the fact that you have given shelter to the people who have changed their religion (i.e. became Muslims) and have claimed that you will help them and support them. By Allah, if you were not in the company of Abu Safwan, you would not be able to go your family safely.” Sa`d, raising his voice, said to him, “By Allah, if you should stop me from doing this (i.e. performing Tawaf) I would certainly prevent you from something which is more valuable for you, that is, your passage through Medina.” On this, Umaiya said to him, “O Sa`d do not raise your voice before Abu-l-Hakam, the chief of the people of the Valley (of Mecca).” Sa`d said, “O Umaiya, stop that! By Allah, I have heard Allah’s Messenger predicting that the Muslim will kill you.” Umaiya asked, “In Mecca?” Sa`d said, “I do not know.” Umaiya was greatly scared by that news. When Umaiya returned to his family, he said to his wife, “O Um Safwan! Don’t you know what Sa`d told me? “She said, “What has he told you?” He replied, “He claims that Muhammad has informed them (i.e. companions that they will kill me. I asked him, ‘In Mecca?’ He replied, ‘I do not know.” Then Umaiya added, “By Allah, I will never go out of Mecca.” But when the day of (the Ghazwa of) Badr came, Abu Jahl called the people to war, saying, “Go and protect your caravan.” But Umaiya disliked going out (of Mecca). Abu Jahl came to him and said, “O Abu Safwan! If the people see you staying behind though you are the chief of the people of the Valley, then they will remain behind with you.” Abu Jahl kept on urging him to go until he (i.e. Umaiya) said, “As you have forced me to change my mind, by Allah, I will buy the best camel in Mecca. Then Umaiya said (to his wife). “O Um Safwan, prepare what I need (for the journey).” She said to him, “O Abu Safwan! Have you forgotten what your Yathribi brother told you?” He said, “No, but I do not want to go with them but for a short distance.” So when Umaiya went out, he used to tie his camel wherever he camped. He kept on doing that till Allah caused him to be killed at Badr.” (Sahih Bukhari volume 5, Book 59, Hadith 286)


    Al-Bayhaqi:

    “By God, if you prevent me from performing circuits around the Ka’bah, I will cut of your trade (routes) to Ash-Sham (Syria and surrounding regions’).”(Dalaail An-Nabuwwah – Al-Baihaqee volume 3, page 25).

    From the above reports we gather the following facts:

    (1) Sa’d Ibn Muadh went to Mecca to perform lesser pilgrimage (Umrah)

    (2) He was confronted by Abu Jahl because Sa’d gave safety to Muslims in Madina and Abu Jahl was not happy about that.

    (3) Abu Jahl threatened Sa’d ibn Muadh. Had it been not for the protection from Umayya bin Khalaf, he wouldn’t have returned home.

    (4) This incident occurred before Badr, these reports proves and shows that Muslims did not just began raiding caravans when they settled in Medina. Rather, it was only when the Quraysh became more hostile and started attacking the Muslims, that the Muslims responded with attacking their merchandise so as to weaken Quraysh financially and also to retrieve stolen property that was taken by the Quraysh when the Muslims fled to Mecca (Read further on Quraysh stealing from Muslims, here: ‘Property Of Muslims Stolen – Robbed By Quraysh In Makkah’). This was the only way for Quraysh to understand and to be stop them from persecuting Muslims further, hitting their pockets.

    Furthermore, what this shows and proves is that until Abu Jahl showed open hostility to the Muslims in Medina, trading caravans that were travelling pass Medina were going there safely without any attack by the Muslims. The Muslim community in Medina made no attempts to stop Quraysh’s trade going to Syria. This proves that the Muslims then didn’t treat them as enemies, raiding any of their caravans.

    This was until the leaders of the Quraish started to declare war against the Muslims in Medina. The Muslims were treated as being enemies for merely proclaiming that God is One, believing in the Message of Islam and expressing their conscience thereof. Therefore, this proves that the people who began war, were the polytheists from Quraish, not the Muslims.

    These authentic reports thoroughly debunk the baseless and fictitious claims made by some, that when Muhammad (p) moved to Medina, he just went on robbing and looting the Quraysh caravans. On the contrary, history is supreme witness that the hostilities were started by the Quraysh when they continuously persecuted the Muslims to the extent that they made them flee their birth-place to Medina. No sooner the Muslims fled the Meccan persecution to Medina, then the Meccans followed them there still to threaten and declare war against them. Hence, the Muslims, 1400 years ago, had no choice but to defend their community for survival. And this was the cause and the beginning of the hostilities.
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    Prophet Used To Forgive The Quraysh Enemies While In Madinah

    Having provided ample of proofs showing that the Quraysh were the ones who started hostilities against Muslims in Medina 1400 years ago. Let us note the following Hadith that relates, that while the pagans were verbally and physically hostile to the Muslims in Medina, the Muslims were commanded by God Almighty to remain patient and forgive.

    Sahih al-Bukhari:

    “Allah’s Messenger rode a donkey, equipped with a thick cloth-covering made in Fadak and was riding behind him. He was going to pay visit to Sa`d bin Ubada in Banu Al-Harith bin Al-Khazraj; and this incident happened before the battle of Badr. The Prophet passed by a gathering in which `Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul was present, and that was before `Abdullah bin Ubai embraced Islam. Behold in that gathering there were people of different religions: there were Muslims, idol-worshippers and Jews, and in that gathering `Abdullah bin Rawaha was also present. When a cloud of dust raised by the donkey reached that gathering, `Abdullah bin Ubai covered his nose with his garment and then said, “Do not cover us with dust.” Then Allah’s Messenger greeted them and stopped and dismounted and invited them to Allah (i.e. to embrace Islam) and recited to them the Holy Qur’an. On that, `Abdullah bin Ubai bin Saluil said, “O man! There is nothing better than that what you say. If it is the truth, then do not trouble us with it in our gatherings. Return to your mount (or residence) and if somebody comes to you, relate (your tales) to him.” On that `Abdullah bin Rawaha said, “Yes, O Allah’s Apostle! Bring it (i.e. what you want to say) to us in our gathering, for we love that.” So the Muslims, the pagans and the Jews started abusing one another till they were on the point of fighting with one another. The Prophet kept on quietening them till they became quiet, whereupon the Prophet rode his animal (mount) and proceeded till he entered upon Sa’d bin Ubada. The Prophet said to Sa`d, “Did you not hear what ‘Abu Hub-b said?” He meant `Abdullah bin Ubai. “He said so-and so.” On that Sa`d bin Ubada said, “O Allah’s Messenger! Excuse and forgive him, for by Him Who revealed the Book to you, Allah brought the Truth which was sent to you at the time when the people of this town (i.e. Medina) had decided unanimously to crown him and tie a turban on his head (electing him as chief). But when Allah opposed that (decision) through the Truth which Allah gave to you, he (i.e. `Abdullah bin Ubai) was grieved with jealously. and that caused him to do what you have seen.” So Allah’s Messenger excused him, for the Prophet and his companions used to FORGIVE THE PAGANS and the people of Scripture as Allah had ordered them, AND THEY USED TO PUT UP WITH THEIR MISCHIEF WITH PATIENCE. Allah said: “And you shall certainly hear much that will grieve you from those who received the Scripture before you and from the pagans…'(3.186) And Allah also said:–“Many of the people of the Scripture wish if they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed, from selfish envy..” (2.109) So the Prophet used to stick to the principle of forgiveness for them as long as Allah ordered him to do so till Allah permitted fighting them. So when Allah’s Messenger fought the battle of Badr and Allah killed the nobles of Quraish disbelievers through him, Ibn Ubai bin Salul and the pagans and idolaters who were with him, said, “This matter (i.e. Islam) has appeared (i.e. became victorious).” So they gave the pledge of allegiance (for embracing Islam) to Allah’s Messenger and became Muslims.” (Sahih Bukhari volume 6, Book 60, Hadith 89)

    Points to deduce from the above report:

    1. We are told that this incident occurred before the Battle of Badr, in Medina.

    2. We are told that the Muslims were commanded to be patient even though the polytheists used to make mischief (i.e., used to be violent towards the Muslims).

    3. We are told this principle of “forgiving hostilities” ended when the Quraish continued with their hostilities in Medina, and verses of the Quran came down with the permission for the Muslims to fight back those who attack them.

    Conclusion:

    This report give us ample proof that the Muslims in Medina were living peacefully with everyone, when they got there. On the other hand, the Muslims were subjected to continued aggression, threats and war declaration from the Quraysh, hence they had no choice but to defend their community from the hostile Meccans.
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    Quraysh Declared War Against Muslims Before The Battle Of Badr

    On Sa’d ibn Mua’dh’s visit to Mecca to do Umrah, the Quraysh declared war against the Muslims!

    Sahih al-Bukhari:

    “Sa`d bin Mu`adh came to Mecca with the intention of performing `Umra, and stayed at the house of Umaiya bin Khalaf Abi Safwan, for Umaiya himself used to stay at Sa`d’s house when he passed by Medina on his way to Sham. Umaiya said to Sa`d, “Will you wait till midday when the people are (at their homes), then you may go and perform the Tawaf round the Ka`ba?” So, while Sa`d was going around the Ka`ba, Abu Jahl came and asked, “Who is that who is performing Tawaf?” Sa`d replied, “I am Sa`d.” Abu Jahl said, “Are you circumambulating the Ka`ba safely although you have given refuge to Muhammad and his companions?” Sa`d said, “Yes,” and they started quarreling. Umaiya said to Sa`d, “Don’t shout at Abi-l-Hakam (i.e. Abu Jahl), for he is chief of the valley (of Mecca).” Sa`d then said (to Abu Jahl). ‘By Allah, if you prevent me from performing the Tawaf of the Ka`ba, I will spoil your trade with Sham.” Umaiya kept on saying to Sa`d, “Don’t raise your voice.” and kept on taking hold of him. Sa`d became furious and said, (to Umaiya), “Be away from me, for I have heard Muhammad saying that he will kill you.” Umaiiya said, “Will he kill me?” Sa`d said, “Yes,.” Umaiya said, “By Allah! When Muhammad says a thing, he never tells a lie.” Umaiya went to his wife and said to her, “Do you know what my brother from Yathrib (i.e. Medina) has said to me?” She said, “What has he said?” He said, “He claims that he has heard Muhammad claiming that he will kill me.” She said, By Allah! Muhammad never tells a lie.” So when the DISBELIEVERS STARTED TO PROCEED for Badr (Battle) and DECLARED WAR war (against the Muslims), his wife said to him, “Don’t you remember what your brother from Yathrib told you?” Umaiya decided not to go but Abu Jahl said to him, “You are from the nobles of the valley (of Mecca), so you should accompany us for a day or two.” He went with them and thus Allah got him killed.” (Sahih al-Bukhari volume 4, Book 56, Hadith 826)

    This is an interesting narration. We have already highlighted Sa’d Ibn Mu’adh’s account in which he went to Mecca for the lesser pilgrimage (Umrah) and was confronted by Abu Jahl questioning him on why he gave safe haven to Muslims in Medina something Abu Jahl and the hostile Quraysh hated a lot. He was threatened by Abu Jahl and hadn’t it been for Umaya he would have been killed there and then. Sa’d’s response to Abu Jahl was that, if he were to do that, their trading caravan business through Medina will come to end. This shows that when Muslims lived in Medina, Quraysh’s caravan business wasn’t touched until war was declared on the Muslims.

    Notice, the report does not say “Muslims declared war”, but that the Quraysh declared war against the Muslims first. This shows that the declaration of war as well as the hostility was not started by the Muslims but by the Quraysh leaders. And thus it led to the Muslims, 1400 years ago, to defend their community.

    This shows once again that the myth propagated by some that the Muslims started war against the Quraysh is nothing but fictitious claims which has no historical backing.

    Note: Umaiya was one of those who used to persecute Muslims and even tortured a number of companions of the Prophet (p) just because they believed in the faith of Islam, that there is no God but One God. He was one of those who never abstained from doing evil to innocent people and thus Muhammad (p) wished him killed to stop him persecuting innocent people. You can read about Umaiya bin Khalaf in the following article. Umaya used to persecute innocent people 1400 years ago: Umaiya Bin Khalaf Abi Safwan Persecuted Muslims.
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    Raid Incident At Nakhlah?

    The expedition of Nakhla was made just to collect information on what the Quraysh were doing and to report back to the Prophet (p) accordingly.

    The Prophet (p) sent Abdullah Ibn Jahsh to Nakhlah with a letter and ordered him not to open it for at-least two days after which he could open and read and follow its instructions. When the time came, Abdullah ibn Jahsh opened the letter and set forth to Nakhlah. This is reported in Tabari and Ibn Ishaq.

    Tabari:

    EXPEDITION OF NAKHLAH…
    “They question thee with regard to warfare in the sacred month. Say: warfare therein is a great (transgression), but to turn (man) from the path of Allah…’ This was revealed because the Messenger of God sent a detachment of seven men under the command of Abd’Allah b. Jahsh al-Asadi, consisting of Ammar b. Yasir, Abu Hudhayfah b. Utbah b. Rabi’ah, Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas, Utbah b. Ghazwan al-Sulami the confederate of the Banu Nawfal, Suhayl b. Bayda, Amir b. Fuhayrah and Waqid b. Abd’Allah a;-Yarbu’I the confederate of Umar b. al-Khattab.
    He wrote a letter (which he gave) to Ibn Jahsh, ordering him not to read it until he halted at Batn Malal. When he halted at Batn Malal, he opened the letter, which read, ‘March until you halt at Batn Nakhlah.’ He said to his companions, ‘Whoever desires death, let him go on and make his will, I am making my will and acting on the orders of the Messenger of God.’
    He went on, and Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas and Utbah b. Ghazwan, who had lost their riding camel, stayed behind. They went to Buhran in search of it, while Ibn Jahsh went to Batn Nakhlah.
    Suddenly he encountered al-Hakam b. Kaysan, Abd’Allah b. Mughirah, al-Mughirah b. Uthman, and Amr b. al-Hadrami. They fought and took al-Hakam b. Kaysan and Abd’Allah b. al-Mughira captive, while al-Mughirah escaped and Amr al-Hadrami was killed by Waqid b. Abd’Allah.” [1]

    Ibn Ishaq:

    “THE EXPEDITION OF ANDULLAH B. JAHSH AND THE COMING DOWN OF ‘THEY WILL ASK YOU ABOUT
    THE SACRED MONTH’
    “The Apostle sent Abdullah b. Jahsh b. Ri’ab al-Asadi in Rajab on his return from the first Badr. He sent with him eight emigrants, without any of the Ansar. He wrote for him a letter, and ordered him not look at it until he journeyed for two days, and to do what he was orded to do, but not to put pressure in any of his companions. The names of the eight emigrants were, Abu Hudhayfa, Abdullah b. Jahsh, Ukkasha b. Mihsan, Utba b. Ghazwan, Sa’d b. Abu Waqqas, Amir b. Rabi’a, Waqid b. Abdullah, and Khalid b. al-Bukayr. When Abdullah had travelled for two days he opened the letter and looked into it, and this is what it said, ‘When you have read this letter of mine proceed until you reach Nakhla between Mecca and Al-Ta’if. Lie in wait there for Quraysh and find out for us what they are doing. ’Having read the letter he said, ‘To hear is to obey.’ Then he said to his companions, ‘The apostle has commanded me to go to Nakhla to lie in wait there for Quraysh SO AS TO BRING NEWS OF THEM. He had forbidden me to put pressure on any of you, so if anyone wishes for martyrdom let him go forward, and he who does not, let him go back; as for me I am going on as the Prophet has ordered.’ So he went on, as did all his companions, not one of them fell back. He journeyed along the Hijaz until at a mine called Bahran above al-Furu, Sa’d and Utba lost the camel which they were riding by turns, so they stayed behind to look for it, while Abdullah and the rest of them went on to Nakhla. A caravan of Quraysh carrying dry raisins and leather and other merchandise of Quraysh passed by them, Amr b. al-Hadrami, Uthman b. Abdullah b. al-Mughira and his brother Naufal the Makhzumites, and al-hakam b. Kaysan, freedman of Hisham b. al-Mughira being among them.
    “When the caravan saw them they were afraid of them because they had camped near them.
    Ukkasha, who had shaved his head, looked down on them, and when they saw him they felt safe and said, ‘They are pilgrims, you have nothing to fear from them.’ The raiders took council among themselves, for this was the last day of Rajab, and they said, ‘If you leave them alone tonight they will get into the sacred area and will be safe from you; and if you kill them, you attack them. Then they encouraged each other, and decided to kill as many as they could of them and take what they had. Waqid show Amr b. al-Hadrami with an arrow and killed him, and Uthman and al-Hakam surrended Naufal escaped and eluded them. Abdullah and his companions took the caravan and the two prisoners and came to Medina with them. One of Abdullah’s family mentioned that he said to his companions, ‘A fifth of what we have belongs to the apostle.’ So he set apart for the apostle a fifth of the caravan, and divided the rest among his companions. When they came to the apostle, he said,‘I did not order you to fight in the sacred month,’and he held the caravan and the two prisoners in suspense and refused to take anything from them. When the apostle said that, the men were in despair and thought they were doomed. Their Muslim brethren reproached them for what they had done, and the Quraysh said, ‘Muhammad and his companions have violated the sacred month, shed blood therein, taken booty, and captured men.’ The Muslims in Mecca who opposed them said that they had done it in Sha’ban. The Jews turned this raid into an omen against the apostle. Amr b. al-Hadrami whom Waqid had killed they said meant ‘amarati’l’-harb (war has come to life), al-Hadrami meant hadarati’l’harb (war is present), and Waqid meant waqadatai’l’-harb (war is kindled); but God turned this against them, not for them, and when there was much talk about it, God sent down his apostle: “They will ask you about the sacred month, and war in it. Say, war therein is a serious matter, but keeping people from the way of God and disbelieving in Him and in the sacred mosque and driving out His people there from is more serious with God. i.e, If you have killed in the sacred month, they have kept you back from the way of God with their unbelief in Him, and from the sacred mosque, and have driven you from it when you were its people. This is a more serious matter with God than the killing of those of them whom you have slain. And seduction is worse than killing.’ i.e., they used to seduce the Muslim in his religion until they made him return to unbelief after believing, and that is worse with God than killing. And they will not cease to fight you until they turn you back from your religion if they can’ i.e., they are doing more heinous acts than that contumaciously. And when the Quran came down about that and God relieved the Muslims of their anxiety in the matter…” [2]

    Reading the above two sources, one realizes that the Prophet (p) did not sent his companions to “raid” or to attack anyone. They were sent to gather information on what the Quraysh (the enemy) were doing. Nothing else!

    I highlighted the two reports because critics try to claim that when Muslims fled to Medina their lives were safe and that there was no threat from the Quraysh.

    But if that was the case, as the critics assume, then why was that one of the leading companions, heading this expedition told the other companions that if they followed along, they would die as ‘martyrs’? The Companion, Abd’Allah b. Jahsh al-Asadi, clearly pointed out the sole purpose of the expedition when he said:

    ‘‘The Apostle has commanded me to go to Nakhla to lie in wait there for Quraysh SO AS TO BRING NEWS OF THEM. He had forbidden me to put pressure on any of you, so if anyone wishes for martyrdom let him go forward, and he who does not, let him go back” (Ibn Ishaq page 286 – 288).
    Remember, they didn’t even arrive in the vicinity of Nakhlah when he said that, and Abd’Allah b. Jahsh al-Asadi started telling his companions that they could go back if they wanted since where he was leading to might cause their being killed (martyred).

    Another question critics need to answer is, why did the Prophet (p) send his companions on an expedition to monitor and gather information what the Quraysh (enemy) were doing, if everything was all jolly between themselves? These historical reports shows that the Quraysh were at war with the Muslims. The reports show that if the Muslims were to be seen, they would be killed on sight. This incident occurred before the battle of Badr.

    Furthermore, when one reads the above two reports, when the Companions returned to the Prophet (p) on what they did, they were rebuked by Prophet Muhammad (p) and other Companions who didn’t participate in this journey, on failing to act exactly according to the word given them by the Prophet, to gather information on the enemy, nothing else!

    Although the Prophet (p) was against what they did, God sent down revelation to Prophet Muhammad (p) that what the Companions did to the enemy was justified for the following reasons as the ayah states:

    “They ask you about the sacred month – about fighting therein. Say, “Fighting therein is great [sin], but averting [people] from the way of Allah and disbelief in Him and [preventing access to] al-Masjid al-Haram and the expulsion of its people there from are greater [evil] in the sight of Allah. And fitnah is greater than killing. And they will continue to fight you until they turn you back from your religion if they are able. And whoever of you reverts from his religion [to disbelief] and dies while he is a disbeliever – for those, their deeds have become worthless in this world and the Hereafter, and those are the companions of the Fire, they will abide therein eternally.” (Qur’an 2:217)
    From the above ayah, we gather the following crimes committed by Quraysh:

    1. Preventing people from Believing in Islam.

    2. Stopping believers going to the Holy Mosque (Masjid al-Haram).

    3. Driving believers out of Mecca, forcibly displacing Muslims.

    4. Persecution is worse than killing – meaning one rather die than be continuously persecuted by the Quraysh.

    5. “And they will continue to fight you until they turn you back from your religion”, here is very strong reminder to Muslims 1400 years ago, that the disbelievers of Makkah will not leave Muslims alone until they abandon their current faith (Islam). That the disbelievers of Makkah will continuously persecute, kill Muslims until they leave Islam.

    When we read these 5 points from the verse, it is clear that the Muslims had every right to fight back against them.
    One cannot accuse the Muslims of being the bad ones for attacking the enemy, when the enemy were the first to attack, continuously persecuting and killing Muslims. Even when the Muslims emigrated away from Quraysh’s persecution, the enemy wrote letters to where the Muslims fled, ordering the expulsion of the persecuted Muslim community out of Medina.

    Concluding remarks:

    The Muslims were persecuted for over ten long years in Mecca. As I mentioned before, when the Muslims were exiled, fleeing from persecution in Makkah to Medina, the Quraysh wrote letters demanding the Medinan leaders to drive out Muslims or else they will come and kill everyone there.

    What were these continuously persecuted and threatened Muslims supposed to do? Sit back and wait for the Quraysh to finish them off before thinking of fighting back?

    In short, the Muslims fighting back the Quraysh enemy, 1400 years ago were justified given the reasons pointed out above.

    References:

    [1] The History of al-Tabari: The Foundation of the Community: Muhammad at al-Madina: volume 7, page 21 – 22
    [2] Ibn Ishaq’s Sirat Rasul Allah – The Life of Muhammad [Translated by A. Guillaume], page 286 – 288
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    Expedition Against Kurz B. Jabir Al-Fihri

    Persecuting, killing, and stealing the wealth from Muslims in Mecca did not satisfy these Quraysh polytheists to leave Muslims alone when they fled to Madina. They continued their devilish plots against the Muslims even after the Muslims immigrated to Medina for safe haven. As we have pointed out before, as soon as the small Muslim community arrived in Medina, the Quraysh wrote letters to the leaders of Medina to drive out Muslims or they will come and kill everyone. .

    Muslims living in Medina were already in a critical situation, where there was no much food for them, since their wealth were stolen by the Quraysh, when they were exiled out of Mecca to Medina.

    Their satanic plots never stopped when the Muslims arrived in Medina to find safety. One of Quraysh’s men, raided and tried to steal livestock belonging to the Muslims.

    As soon as the Prophet (p) received information on this, he sent some of his companions out in pursuit of the enemy. But they got away.

    Tabari:

    “The Messenger of God had only spent a few days in Medina, less than ten, after coming back from the expedition to al-Ushayrah, before Kurz b. Jabir al-Fihri raided the herds of Medina. The Messenger of God went out in pursuit of him and reached a valley called Safawan in the region of Badr, but Kurz eluded him and was not caught. This was the first expedition of Badr.” [1]

    Ibn Ishaq:

    “THE RAID IN SAFAWAN, WHICH IS TH FIRST RAID OF BADR
    The Apostle stayed only a few nights, less than ten, in Medina when he came back from raiding Al-Ushayra, and then Kurz b. Jabir al-Fihri raided the pasturing camels of medina. The Apostle went out in search of him, until he reached a valley called Safawan, in the neighbourhood of Badr. Kurz escaped him and he could not overtake him. This was the first raid of Badr.” [2]

    Kitab Al-Tabaqat Al-Kabir – Ibn Sa’d:

    GHAZWAH IN SEARCH OF KURZ IBN JABIR AL-FIHRI
    Then (occurred) the ghazwah in search of Kurz Ibn Jabir al-Fihri in the month of Rabi al-Awwal (September, 623 A.) after the commencement of the thirteenth month from this hijrah. The standard-bearer was Ali Ibn Talib and the flag was white. He left behind Zayd Ibn Harithah as his vicegerent at al-Medina. Kurz Ibn Jabir had raided (Sarh) the pasture land of al-Medina and carried away some animals. …The Apostle of Allah (p) set out in his (Kurz’s) search till he reached a valley known as Safawan in the vicinity of Badr which Kurz Ibn Jabir had crossed. The Apostle of Allah (p) did not find (Yalhaqau) him so he returned to al-Medina.” [3]

    Scholars

    Mirza Bashir:

    Attack of Kurz bin Jābir and Ghazwah of Safwān – Jamādiyul-Ākhir 2 A.H.
    However, despite such vigilance and various Muslim parties constantly making watchful rounds in the surroundings of Medina, the mischief of the Quraish managed to break through. As such, ten days had not passed since the return of the Holy Prophet to Medina when a chieftain of Mecca named Kurz bin JābirFihrī very cunningly along with a company of the Quraish, suddenly raided a pasture of Madīnah, which was situated only three miles from the city and fled with camels, etc., belonging to the Muslims. As soon as the Holy Prophet received news of this, he appointed Zaid bin Ḥārithahra as the Amīr in his absence, and set out in his pursuit along with a group of the Companions. The Holy Prophetsa pursued him until he reached Safwān which is an area close to Badr, but he made good his escape. This Ghazwah is also known as Ghazwah Badratul-Ula.

    This raid of Kurz bin Jābir was not a minor Beduin act of plunder, rather, it is definite that he had set out against the Muslims on behalf of the Quraish, with a particular motive. As a matter of fact, is it very likely that he had specifically come with the intention of inflicting injury upon the very person of the Holy Prophet, but upon finding the Muslims vigilant, settled upon the robbery of their camels and ran off. This also demonstrates that the Quraish of Mecca had planned to raid Madīnah so as to utterly destroy the Muslims. It should also be remembered that the Muslims had already been given permission for Jihād by the sword prior to this, and in a sense of self defense they had begun to employ an initial plan of action in this regard as well. However, until now, they had not practically suffered any loss in terms of wealth or lives. However, the raid of Kurz bin Jābir was one which practically inflicted harm upon the Muslims. In other words, even after the acceptance of the challenge of the Quraish, it was the disbelievers who practically initiated battle.” [4]

    Hajjah Aminah Adil:

    “THE RAID ON SAFWAN, THE FIRST EXPEDITION TO BADR
    The Holy Prophet stayed in Medina only few nights after he returned from the Raid on Ushayra. News was brought to him that Kurz bin Jabir al-Fihri had raided pasturing camels belonging to Medina at a distance of three days journey. The Holy Prophet set out to pursue him at once, and rode till he reached the valley of Safawan, in the neighbourhood of a well named Badr. But Kurz had escaped and he could not catch up with him.” [5]

    Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal:

    “…when Kurz ibn Jabir al-Fihri, an ally of Quraysh, raided the camels and cattle of Medina. The Prophet immediately led a force after him, appointing Zayd ibn Harithah as his representative during his absence. The force marched until it reached a valley called safawan in the district of Badr and again missed their objective, the said Kurz ibn Jabir al-Fihri. It is to this that biographers refer as the first raid of Badr.” [6]
    Al-Sirah Al-Nabawiyah – Dr.Shawqi Abu Khalil:

    “THE CAMPAIGN OF SAFAWAN (THE FIRST CAMPAIGN OF BADR) IN RABI’UL-AWWAL 2 AH.
    The Messenger of Allah went out in pursuit of Kurz Ibn Jabir Al-Fihri, who had raided the pasturing camels of Al-Medina. He pursued him until he reached a valley called Safawan, in the vicinity of Badr, but Kurz got away from him and he could not catch him, so he went back to Al-Medina.” [7]

    Safi-Ur-Rahman Mubarakpuri:

    “…Kurz bin Jabir Al-Fihri rustled some grazing cattle belonging to the Muslims. The Prophet gathered seventy Muhajireen and chased him to Safwan on the outskirts of Badr, but Kurz escaped.” [8]

    Dr. Mustafa As-Sibaa’ie:

    “THE FIRST EXPEDITION OF BADR
    The Prophet set out with a number of his Companions because a man named Kurz ibn Jaabir Al-Faihree raided grazing livestock that belonged to the inhabitants of Al-Madeenah and stole some camels and other livestock cattle. The Prophet pursued Kurz until he reached the valley of Safwaan, which is situated beside Badr; however, Kurz managed to escape his pursuers, and so the Messenger of Allah and his Companions then returned to Al-Madeenah.” [9]

    Conclusion:

    The myth that has been purported that the Muslims lived safely in Medina, and were left alone by the Quraysh, is not true as the forgoing early reports have established. The Muslims were constantly being attacked by the Makkans even after they fled to Medina, before the battle of Badr ensued. The Prophet (p), 1400 years ago, had no choice but to start defending his community against the continuous attacks by the Quraysh.

    References:

    [1] History of al-Tabari: The: The Foundation of the Community: Muhammad At Al-Madina, volume 7, page 14
    [2] Ibn Ishaq’s Sirat Rasul Allah – The Life of Muhammad – Translated by A. Guillaume, Page 286
    [3] Kitab Al-Tabaqat Al-Kabir, By Ibn Sa’d, volume 2, page 6
    [4] The Life & Character of the Seal of Prophets volume 2 (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin) By Ḥaḍrat Mirza Bashir Aḥmad M.A., page 101 – 102
    [5] Muhammad, the Messenger of Islam: His Life & Prophecy By Hajjah Amina Adil, page 292
    [6] The Life of Muhammad, by Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal, page 218
    [7] Atlas on the Prophet’s Biography, Places, Nations, Landmarks, – (Al-sīrah Al-Nabawīyah), By Dr.Shawqi Abu Khalil, page 122
    [8] When The Moon Split, by Safi-Ur-Rahman Mubarakpuri, page 147
    [9] The Life of Prophet Muhammad: Highlights And Lessons by Dr. Mustafa As-Sibaa’ie, page 879
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    Property Of Muslims Stolen – Robbed By Quraysh In Makkah?
    By Kaleef K. Karim

    What did the generous Quraysh do when Muhammed (p) and his companions fled to Madinah from persecution? You read it right! They started stealing and ravishing the property of Muslims who fled persecution from Makkah to Madinah. Not only were they oppressors, tyrants and murderers, but they were also the biggest thieves. These are the people bigots, fascists and Christian supremacists defend against Muslims. They find what Muhammed preached against idolatry more grievous, more painful than Muslims getting oppressed, tortured and murdered. According to them, Muslims preaching, exercising their free speech deserved to be tortured, murdered. These are the sick people we come across online justifying the actions of warmongers and murderers.

    Example, critics attempt to down play the atrocities at Makkah, committed against the Muslims on the basis that the Muslims were the ones who exercised free speech by speaking against idolatry. They further claim that when the Muslims fled to Madinah, the generous Quraysh didn’t rob, steal the property of Muslims in Makkah. Thus, Prophet’s (p) attacks on the caravans weren’t warranted since the property wasn’t stolen by the Quraysh, and what the Muslims did was unwarranted.

    However, the above claims are false.

    Let’s read the following Hadiths and demonstrate that property of the Muslims were stolen by the Quraysh.

    Narrated `Abdur-Rahman bin `Auf: I got an agreement written between me and Umaiya bin Khalaf that Umaiya would look after my property (and family) in Mecca and I would look after his in Medina. When I mentioned the word ‘Ar- Rahman’ in the documents, Umaiya said, “I do not know ‘Ar-Rahman.’ Write down to me your name, (with which you called yourself) in the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance.” So, I wrote my name ‘ `Abdu `Amr’. … (Sahih al-Bukhari volume 3, Book 38, Hadith 498)

    And

    Narrated `Abdur-Rahman bin `Auf: “I had an agreement with Umaiya bin Khalaf (that he would look after my relatives and property in Mecca, and I would look after his relatives and property in Medina).” … (Sahih al-Bukhari Vol. 5, Book 59, Hadith 310)

    The above authentic Hadith, we can deduce the following:

    • 1. Abdur-Rahman bin `Auf had some family and property in Makkah when he fled to Madinah.
    • 2. Agreement between Abdur-Rahman bin `Auf and Umayya bin Khalaf was that he (Abdur-Rahman) would look after Umayya’s property and family in Madinah if he were to do the same for him in Makkah. Abdur-Rahman bin `Auf and Umayya were good friend’s during the pre-Islamic era and still kept in touch.
    • 3. Umayya bin Khalaf had the power to protect Abdur-Rahman bin `Auf’s property and family because he was one of the leaders of the Quraysh.
    • 4. Those who weren’t as fortunate as Abdur-Rahman bin Awf, their property was taken and their families would have gone through torture till they abandon their Islamic faith.
    The above are interesting points to think about. We can clearly see that those Muslims who were still in Makkah but didn’t have tribal protection, their property, household were stolen by the Quraysh. We can also emphasize that those Muslims who fled persecution out of Makkah to Madinah, their property weren’t protected and hence were stolen by the Quraysh. Furthermore, we can read from the above reports that those few Muslims who were still in Makkah, were either tortured or even killed, as other companions were killed before.

    Besides the Quraysh threatening, stealing and attacking Muslims in Madinah, they were also committing further crimes in Makkah by persecuting and stealing properties of Muslims.

    In the following authentic Hadith we have clear report wherein we are told that the Muslims who fled persecution, their property were stolen.

    At the start of the report it speaks about booty taken in war and who will get a share of it. It tells us that those Muslims whose property were stolen, taken by the Quraysh will have a share of the booty since they don’t own anything because the Makkans stole from them:

    Az-Zuhri said: This applies exclusively to the Messenger of Allah and refers to an Arab village called Fadak, and so on. What Allah gave as booty (Fay’) to His Messenger (Muhammad) from the people of the townships – it is for Allah, His Messenger (Muhammad), the kindred (of Messenger Muhammad), the orphans, Al-Masakin (the poor), and the wayfarer (And there is also a share in this booty) for the poor emigrants, who were expelled from their homes and their property [stolen] And (it is also for) those who, before them, had homes (in Al-Madinah) and had adopted the Faith And those who came after them. There is no one left among the Muslims but he has some rights to this wealth, except for some of the slaved whom you own. If I live, if Allah wills, I will give every Muslim his right.” Or he said: “His share.”
    Arabic Text:
    “>قَالَ الزُّهْرِيُّ هَذِهِ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم خَاصَّةً قُرًى عَرَبِيَّةً فَدَكُ كَذَا وَكَذَا ‏{‏ مَا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرَى فَلِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ‏}‏ وَ ‏{‏ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ وَأَمْوَالِهِمْ ‏}‏ ‏{‏ وَالَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُوا الدَّارَ وَالإِيمَانَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ‏}‏ ‏{‏ وَالَّذِينَ جَاءُوا مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ ‏}‏ فَاسْتَوْعَبَتْ هَذِهِ الآيَةُ النَّاسَ فَلَمْ يَبْقَ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ إِلاَّ لَهُ فِي هَذَا الْمَالِ حَقٌّ – أَوْ قَالَ حَظٌّ – إِلاَّ بَعْضَ مَنْ تَمْلِكُونَ مِنْ أَرِقَّائِكُمْ وَلَئِنْ عِشْتُ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَيَأْتِيَنَّ عَلَى كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ حَقُّهُ أَوْ قَالَ حَظُّهُ ‏.‏ (Sunan an-Nasa’i volume 5, Book 38, Hadith 4153)

    The Arabic word used in the above report is ‘Ukhrijoe’ (أُخْرِجُوا). Reading the following Arabic-English dictionaries, they tell us that the word has a variety of meanings from, exile, expel, ‘to take’, ‘extort’, and ‘rob’ i.e., stealing ‘property’:

    Arabic-English Lexicon – Edward William Lane:

    trad. … [And he took forth, or took forth for himself (accord. To a property of many erbs of this form), some dates from a water-skin]: (TA:) [so, too, is …; as meaning he took, led drew, or pulled, out, or forth: but this generally implies some degree of effort, or labour; as does also …; and likewise, desire: i.e., it means he sought, or endeavoured, to make a thing come forth: the former is also syn. With … (q. v.) and …: and both of them signify, and so does أُخْرِجُوا [ukrij] in many instances, he drew out, or forth; extracted; edured; produced; elicited; fetched out by labour or art; got out; or extorted: this is what is meant by its being said] … [1]

    Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic: Arabic-English – Hans Wehr:

    … أُخْرِجُوا [Ukrijoe] (katt) to be derailed, run off the track (train) II to move out, take out, dislodge (. S.o., s.t.h.); to remove, eliminate (…); to exclude, except (…); to train (…); to educate, bring up, … to pull out, extract (…) … to bring out into the open, make public (…); to remove, extract, (…); to expel, evict, exile, expatriate (…); to dismiss, fire, remove (. S. o. from an office); أُخْرِجُوا (tarwatihi) to rob s.o. of his property, dispossess, expropriate… [2]

    Wortabet’s Arabic-English Dictionary – Wortabet William Thomson:

    To make come or pass out; take or draw out; expel أُخْرِجُوا, exclude … to draw out, elicit, extort[3]
    Arabic English Dictionary for the use of students – Reverend F. J. G. Hava, S. J.:

    [Ukrijoe]
    أُخْرِجُوا To take, to send … a. o. or a. th. Out from. [4]

    Al-Mawrid A Modern Arabic-English Dictionary – Dr. Rohi Baalbaki:

    أُخْرِجُوا To Take out, bring out, get out, let out: drive out, oust … [5]
    An Arabic-English vocabulary for the use of English students of modern Egyptian Arabic – Donald Andreas Cameron:

    أُخْرِجُوا , he took, sent, or drove out; exported …, he extracted, elicited. … a going out, issue, exit, exodus. [6]
    We can see clear evidence that besides Muslims fleeing Makkah, their property was stolen, robbed by the Quraysh. And those few Muslims who were still in Makkah, their property and themselves weren’t protected and thus they were robbed and tortured, or as some other companions’ fates, they were murdered for believing in Islam.

    Therefore, we can conclude that the attacks against Quraysh’s caravans was committed because of the continued hostilities, persecutions against Muslims. And the Muslims were only regaining some of the property which had been wrongfully robbed by the Quraysh from the Muslims. For those who claim that no property were taken by the Quraysh is nothing but fictitious accusations to try to make Quraysh thieves in good light and to absolve them of doing any wrong. Thus, the overwhelming evidences presented shows that the Quraysh did indeed steal houses and property from Muslims.

    References:

    [1] Arabic-English Lexicon by Edward William Lane (London: Willams & Norgate 1863), page 718
    [2] Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic: Arabic-English By Hans Wehr, page 232
    [3] Wortabet’s Arabic-English Dictionary by Wortabet William Thomson, with the collaboration of Rev. John Wortabet M.D. and Professor Harvey Porter Ph. D., [Fourth edition – Librairie du liban Beirut], page 125
    [4] Arabic English Dictionary for the use of students [Byrut – Catholic press, 1899, By the Rev. F. J. G. Hava, S. J., page 153
    [5] Al-Mawrid A Modern Arabic-English Dictionary [Dar el-Ilm Lilmalayin – seventh edition 1995] by Dr. Rohi Baalbaki, page 507
    [6] An Arabic-English vocabulary for the use of English students of modern Egyptian Arabic By Donald Andreas Cameron page 74​

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