Macaroon and macaron

Discussion in 'Five Star Kitchen' started by sister herb, Jun 12, 2014.

  1. sister herb
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    MACAROON

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    A macaroon is a type of small circular cake, typically made from ground almonds (the original main ingredient) or coconut (and/or other nuts or even potato), with sugar and egg white. Macaroons are often baked on edible rice paper placed on a baking tray.

    The word 'macaroon' comes from the Italian maccarone or maccherone meaning 'paste', referring to the original almond paste ingredient; this word itself derives from ammaccare, meaning to bruise.

    Origins

    The earliest recorded macaroon recipes were made from egg whites and almond paste; Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management gives a typical recipe.

    Culinary historians claim that macaroons can be traced to an Italian monastery of the 9th century. The monks came to France in 1533, joined by the pastry chefs of Catherine de Medici, wife of King Henri II. Later, two Benedictine nuns, Sister Marguerite and Sister Marie-Elisabeth, came to Nancy seeking asylum during the French Revolution. The two women paid for their housing by baking and selling macaroon cookies, and thus became known as the "Macaroon Sisters". Recipes for macaroons (also spelled "mackaroon," "maccaroon" and "mackaroom") appear in recipe books at least as early as 1725 (Robert Smith's Court Cookery, or the Complete English Cook).

    Italian Jews later adopted the cookie because it has no flour or leavening (macaroons are leavened by egg whites) and can be enjoyed during the eight-day observation of Passover. It was introduced to other European Jews and became popular as a year-round sweet. Over time, coconut was added to the ground almonds and, in certain recipes, replaced them. Potato starch is also sometimes included in the recipe, to give the macaroons more body.

    Scottish

    The Scottish macaroon is a sweet confection with a thick velvety centre covered in chocolate and topped with roasted coconut. Traditionally they were made with cold leftovers of mashed potatoes and sugar loaf. When the macaroon bar became commercial the recipe no longer used mashed potato because of shelf life limitations. The modern macaroon is made from a combination (depending on producer) of sugar, glucose, water and egg white. These ingredients make a fondant centre. This recipe was reportedly discovered by accident in 1931, when confectioner John Justice Lees was said to have botched the formula for making a chocolate fondant bar and threw coconut over it in disgust, producing the first macaroon bar.

    North American


    In North America, the coconut macaroon is the better known variety. Commercially made coconut macaroons are generally dense, moist and sweet, and often dipped in chocolate. Homemade macaroons and varieties produced by smaller bakeries are commonly light and fluffy. Macaroons made with coconuts are often piped out with a star shaped tip, whereas macaroons made with nuts are more likely shaped individually due to the stiffness of the dough. Because of their lack of wheat and leavening ingredients, macaroons are often consumed during Passover in many Jewish homes.

    Coconut macaroon

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    Coconut macaroons

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    An opened Mangalorean macaroon with cashews

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    Acıbadem kurabiyesi

    A coconut macaroon

    is a type of macaroon most commonly found in Australia, the United States, The Netherlands (Kokosmakronen) and Germany, and is directly related to the Scottish macaroon. Its principal ingredients are egg whites, sugar and shredded dried coconut. It is closer to a soft cookie than its meringue cousin, and is equally sweet. Many varieties of coconut macaroons are dipped in chocolate, typically milk chocolate.

    Versions dipped in dark chocolate or white chocolate are also becoming more commonly available. Nuts are often added to coconut macaroons, typically almond slivers, but occasionally pecans, cashews or other nuts. In Australia, a blob of raspberry jam or glacé cherries are often concealed in the centre of the macaroon prior to cooking.

    Dominican

    Macaroons in the Dominican Republic are very dark. Grated coconut is mixed with ginger and cinnamon.

    French


    In France, the almond variety is called macaron; it is typically light like meringue, with added colouring, flavouring and often a flavoured filling.

    The coconut macaroon is known as the "congolais", or "le rocher à la noix de coco".

    Spanish


    The carajito is a macaroon variant made with hazelnuts and honey from the town of Salas, Asturias in northern Spain. A larger size version is commonly known as sultana or suspiros del moro.

    Puerto Rican


    In Puerto Rico, coconut macaroons are called besitos de coco (little coconut kisses). A few variations of besitos de coco can be found on the island, the most popular ones including lemon zest and vanilla as additional ingredients.

    Indian


    Tuticorin and Mangalore have their own varieties of macaroon made with cashews and egg whites, adapted from those introduced in colonial times.[11]

    Ireland


    A macaroon chocolate bar is made by Wilton Candy in Co. Kildare, Ireland. The description on the packaging is "macaroon pieces in Irish milk chocolate." It was first made in 1937.

    Turkish


    Acıbadem kurabiyesi is a traditional Turkish cookie made of almonds, sugar and egg whites. The traditional recipes include a small amount of bitter almonds, which gives this cookie its name. Because bitter almonds are not readily available, almond extract is typically used as a substitute. These cookies are part of the stock-in trade of almost every bakery in Turkey, as they are seldom made at home.

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    MACARON

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    A macaron is a sweet meringue-based confection made with eggs, icing sugar, granulated sugar, almond powder or ground almond, and food colouring. The macaron is commonly filled with ganache, buttercream or jam filling sandwiched between two biscuits. The name is derived from the Italian word macarone, maccarone or maccherone, the Italian meringue.

    The confection is characterised by smooth, squared top, ruffled circumference (referred to as the "foot" or "pied"), and a flat base. It is mildly moist and easily melts in the mouth. Macarons can be found in a wide variety of flavors that range from the traditional (raspberry, chocolate) to the new (foie gras, matcha).

    The macaroon is often mistaken as the macaron; many have adopted the French spelling of macaron to distinguish the two items in the English language. However, this has caused confusion over the correct spelling. Some recipes exclude the use of macaroon to refer to this French confection while others think that they are synonymous. In reality, the word macaroon is simply the English translation of the French word macaron, so both pronunciations are technically correct depending on personal preference and context. In a Slate article on the topic, Stanford Professor of Food Cultures Dan Jurafsky indicates that 'macaron' (also, "macaron parisien", or "le macaron Gerbet") is the correct spelling for the confection.

    Although the macaron is predominantly a French confection, there has been much debate about its origins. Larousse Gastronomique cites the macaron as being created in 791 in a convent near Cormery. Some have traced its French debut back to the arrival of Catherine de' Medici's Italian pastry chefs whom she brought with her in 1533 upon marrying Henry II of France. In 1792, macarons began to gain fame when two Carmelite nuns, seeking asylum in Nancy during the French Revolution, baked and sold the macaron cookies in order to pay for their housing. These nuns became known as the "Macaron Sisters". In these early stages, macarons were served without special flavors or fillings.

    It was not until the 1830s that macarons began to be served two-by-two with the addition of jams, liqueurs, and spices. The macaron as it is known today, composed of two almond meringue discs filled with a layer of buttercream, jam, or ganache filling, was originally called the "Gerbet" or the "Paris macaron." Pierre Desfontaines of the French pâtisserie Ladurée has sometimes been credited with its creation in the early part of the 20th century, but another baker, Claude Gerbet, also claims to have invented it.

    French regional variations

    Several French cities and regions claim long histories and variations, notably Lorraine (Nancy and Boulay), Basque Country (Saint-Jean-de-Luz), Saint-Emilion, Amiens, Montmorillon, Le Dorat, Sault, Chartres, Cormery Joyeuse and Sainte-Croix in Burgundy.

    Macarons d'Amiens, made in Amiens, are small, round-shaped biscuit-type macarons made from almond paste, fruit and honey, which were first recorded in 1855.

    The city of Montmorillon is well known for its macarons and has a museum dedicated to it. The Maison Rannou-Métivier is the oldest macaron bakery in Montmorillon, dating back to 1920. The traditional recipe for Montmorillon macarons remains unchanged for over 150 years.

    The town of Nancy in the Lorraine region has a storied history with the macaron. It is said that the abbess of Remiremont founded an order of nuns called the "Dames du Saint-Sacrement" with strict dietary rules prohibiting the consumption of meat. Two nuns, Sisters Marguerite and Marie-Elisabeth are credited with creating the Nancy macaron to fit their dietary requirements. They became known as the 'Macaron Sisters' (Les Soeurs Macarons). In 1952, the city of Nancy honored them by giving their name to the Rue de la Hache, where the macaroon was invented.

    Switzerland

    In Switzerland the Luxemburgerli (also Luxembourger) is a brand name of confectionery made by the Confiserie Sprüngli in Zürich, Switzerland. A Luxemburgerli is a macaron comprising two disks of almond meringue with a buttercream filling. Luxemburgerli are smaller and lighter than macarons from many other vendors. It is said to be lighter and more airy in consistency. Flavors include: vanilla, chocolate, stracciatella (chocolate chip), caramel, hazelnut, champagne, amaretto, chestnut, mocha, cinnamon, lemon, mandarin, and raspberry. Many flavors are seasonal. The shelf life is three to five days, refrigerated.


    Zurich, Switzerland, Sprüngli confectionery shop display with Luxemburgerli.

    Luxemburgerli were invented by the confectioner Camille Studer who brought the recipe to Zürich after creating them in a Luxembourg confectionery shop (Confiserie Namur) in 1957. There, the recipe was refined for a confectionery contest. The name Luxemburgerli is derived from the nickname which a colleague bestowed on Studer, whose family originated in Luxembourg. The original name, Baiser de Mousse (foam kiss in French), perceived as appropriate for the new creation, was changed to Gebäck des Luxemburgers ("Luxemburger's confection") which became, in Swiss German, Luxemburgerli ("little Luxembourger").

    Korea

    Macarons are popular in South Korea, pronounced as "ma-ka-rong" in Korean. Green tea powder or leaves can be used to make green tea macarons.

    Japan

    Macarons in Japan are a popular confection known as "makaron". There is also a version of the same name which substitutes peanut flour for almond and is flavored in wagashi style, widely available in Japan.


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  2. sister herb
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    sister herb Official TTI Chef

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    Basic coconut macaroon recipe:

    http://turntoislam.com/community/threads/coconut.96006/

    Variations:

    Plum Jam Filled Macaroons

    Use same dough like in basic macaroon.

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    Grease the backing tray and scope about 2 tbsp of the mixture in each time. Make a well in the middle with spoon for the filling.

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    Plum Jam filling

    500 gm plum- removed stone and cut into 8 pieces each plum
    1/2 cup Sugar
    1/2 cup Water

    Mix everything in the medium sauce pan and bring to boil.
    Simmer in the low heat for 15-20 minutes or until thicken.
    Remove from the heat and cool down.

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    Fill each macaroon with some plum jam.

    Source: http://tesathome.com/2010/06/21/coconut-macaroons/



    Filipino Butter Macaroons

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    ½ cup butter, room temperature
    ½ cup light brown sugar
    ¼ tsp salt
    ½ tsp vanilla
    3 eggs
    14 ounces (1 can) sweetened condensed milk
    14 oz desiccated coconut
    melted chocolate


    Preheat oven to 350 degrees F/175 C. Line a muffin pan with paper cupcake liners.
    Cream the butter with the brown sugar until smooth.
    Add the vanilla, eggs and condensed milk. Mix until well combined.
    Add coconut and mix well by hand with a spatula until well combined. Spoon into mini muffin cups and fill each cup ¾ full. Smooth the tops of the batter so tops are flat.
    Bake for approx. 15 – 20 minutes until they are light golden brown. Do not overcook. Note, if your oven tends to bake hotter, bake at 325 degrees F/160 C so they don’t brown too quickly.
    Decorate with melted chocolate.
    Makes 18 macaroons.

    Source: http://lasvegasfoodadventures.wordpress.com/2011/04/02/butter-coconut-macaroons/
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  3. sister herb
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    Basic recipe for macarons:



    French Macarons

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    makes about 35 macaron shells

    Before you begin:

    Choose a nice, cool, dry day
    to make these. Humidity is not your friend. Because whipped whites are mostly air, if the air is too moist it can flatten your macarons. A hot kitchen can also deflate whites.

    Separate your eggs in advance.
    Eggs are easier to separate when they’re cold, so separate them at least an hour and up to a day before, then cover with plastic wrap so it touches the surface of the egg, and just leave the whites on the counter.

    Mis en place
    . Have everything you need in place so you don’t have anything to slow you down once your eggs are whipped.

    Ingredients


    1 cup confectioners’ sugar, 4.5 oz
    3/4 cup almond flour, 2.5 oz.
    2 large egg whites, room temperature (no farm fresh eggs! older eggs hold air better, and take them from the fridge the day before or the morning of and let them sit there happily on the counter and warm to room temp)
    Pinch of cream of tartar
    1/4 cup superfine sugar, 1.5 oz. (also called baker’s sugar, I’ve read you can make your own by processing granulated sugar, but have never tried it)
    3/4 cup seedless raspberry jam, for filling

    See MACAROON VARIATIONS and SUGGESTED FILLINGS on Martha’s website ( http://www.marthastewart.com/318387/french-macaroons ), including chocolate, coconut, peanut, pistachio, raspberry, and vanilla bean.

    UPDATE: Or see the comments below! Some of you have come up with amazing flavor ideas.

    Method

    1. Pulse confectioners’ sugar and almond flour in a food processor until combined. Sift mixture 2 times. (I found sifting with my usual flour sifter near impossible. The almond flour caked under the sifting hand and balled up over it. Instead I sifted with a simple bowl-shaped sieve.)

    2. Whisk whites with a mixer on medium speed until foamy. Add cream of tartar, and whisk until soft peaks form. Reduce speed to low, then add superfine sugar. Increase speed to high, and whisk until stiff peaks form (the recipe suggests 8 minutes, for me it took only 3 to 4 minutes, take care not to over-whip). If you’re going to add color, I added food coloring towards the end of whipping my whites. I found I could use standard, water-based food coloring. Several of the recipes I saw recommended paste food coloring, but I didn’t have any at the time, so I went out on a limb! The water-based colors worked just fine.

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    3. Sift flour mixture over whites, and fold until mixture is smooth and shiny. I found the amount of folding to be crucial. Fold too little, and your macaron shells will have peaks instead of nice rounded caps. Fold too much, and your meringue will drip into a mess of wafer-thin blobs. Tartlette recommends about 50 folds, until your batter has a magma-like flow. For me about 65 folds was just right. I find the batter has a little of a soft-toffee like sheen when it is ready. (UPDATE 02.10: stop by here to read about a macaron class Tartlette taught). You can test a daub on a plate, and if a small beak remains, turn the batter a couple times more. If the batter forms a round cap but doesn’t run, it is just right. When I spooned my batter into the pastry bag, the perfect batter started to just ooze out of the tip once the bag was full. If it stayed stiff inside the bag it was too stiff, if it dripped out too fast the batter was too runny. I found that doubling the recipe made this step very difficult for me, I found I would over fold to incorporate the flour mixture and I would end up with a runny batter.

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    4. Transfer batter to a pastry bag fitted with a 1/2-inch plain round tip.

    5. Pipe 3/4-inch rounds 1 inch apart on parchment-lined baking sheets. I put the tip right in the middle of where I wanted each macaron and let the batter billow up around it, then I drug the tip to the side of the round. (You can pipe 1-inch to 2-inch rounds, but you will need to add cooking time). Tap bottom of each sheet on work surface to release trapped air. Let stand at room temperature for 30 to 45 minutes. (Different recipes recommend anywhere from no rest time to 2 hours rest time. I was most happy with 30 to 45 minutes rest time, once the caps looked more dull and had formed a slight skin, so that during baking the macaron could puff up beneith that skin and form that pretty “foot” at the bottom.) While they’re resting, preheat oven to 375 degrees F/190 C.

    6. Reduce oven temperature to 325 degrees F/160 C. Bake 1 sheet at a time, rotating halfway through, until macarons are crisp and firm, about 10 minutes. After each batch, increase oven temperature to 375 degrees F/190 C, heat for 5 minutes, then reduce to 325 degrees F/160 C. Every oven is different, so you may need to play with your oven temperature. The tops of the macaron shells should not brown.

    7. Let macarons cool on sheets for 2 to 3 minutes, then transfer to a wire rack. If macarons stick, spray water underneath parchment on hot sheet. The steam will help release macarons (if this doesn’t work, see below, under “troubleshooting”).

    8. Sandwich 2 same-size macarons with 1 teaspoon jam. Serve immediately, or stack between layers of parchment, wrap in plastic, and freeze for up to 3 months. It takes only 30 minutes out of the freezer for macarons to be ready to serve.

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    TROUBLESHOOTING: If you’re wringing your hands in frustration because you can’t get these little desserts to come out right, either they are hollow inside or have no feet or they crack, you are in good company. Me included. Here are a few things you can try to get that first perfect batch that will get you addicted to making macarons.

    1. Use an oven thermometer: Chances are, your oven is different than mine, which is different from many other friends and bloggers who have attempted macarons. Pay a couple dollars for a decent oven thermometer and you can know for certain that your oven temp is right. Undercooked macarons will end up hollow or deflate after cooking.

    2. Use a good baking sheet: If your baking sheet is too thin, the macarons won’t bake evenly or correctly. You can even try doubling up two thin baking sheets if that’s all you have.

    3. Use old eggs: I know this may sound wrong, just wrong, but it makes a difference. Use eggs that are not too fresh and leave them on the counter at room temp for a day or two.

    4. Make sure you have prime egg-whipping conditions. Trust me, a humid day or one streak of grease in your bowl can make what could have been a beautiful batch of macarons into a disappointment.

    5. If your macarons have no feet, make sure they had their time on the counter (after piping and before baking) to create a skin. I love what Evelyn said below: “NO skin No feet… ” When your macarons form a skin before you bake them, the skin traps the air under the dome so that the air’s only way to escape is through the bottom, creating feet as it goes.

    6. Don’t over or under fold your batter. I know, I know, we’ve been through this. But if you let your macarons sit on the counter for 45 minutes to form a skin and you’re still asking yourself, “why don’t my macarons have feet?” the answer is probably that you underfolded so the batter is too stiff or overfolded so it is too loose. And if you come up with a different reason, I’d love to hear.

    7. Increase cooking time for bigger macarons: I’ve undercooked my macarons before and had them come out hollow. Pretty still but very disappointing in texture. Make sure that if your macarons are bigger circles, you bake longer.

    8. Keep an eye on your macarons to avoid browning them or letting them crack: “I bake mine with the light on in the oven so I can monitor what’s going on in there. If it seems a little hot, crack the door and stick a wooden spoon in to hold it slightly ajar. I believe the cracking happens when the oven it too hot.” “The steam produced is escaping too fast to exit out only the bottom; thus the top (even with that “skin”) has no option but to break and crack the top. If this happens consistently, turn down the heat a few degrees (no more than 10 degress 5 preferable). “

    9. If you macarons won’t unstick, try water (and cook longer next time). Here’s a great tip from a reader whose macaron shells stuck to the paper. “The steam did not work for me, I think because my paper is fairly thick. So I rested the paper (with the Macarons stuck to it) on a thin layer of water. I counted to 15 which is just enough to soften the paper without getting the Macarons wet. They pulled off flawlessly! You may have to adjust how long you let it sit depending on the type of paper you use, so as not to wet your Macarons!” And it’s also likely, if your macarons stick, that you didn’t cook quite long enough.

    10. What about a confection oven? A convection oven should work just fine. But you should reduce cooking time becasue of the moving air, which will help prevent the cracking. If your convection oven is too hot or the air flow setting is on “high” (if apliccable), then then extra drying might make cracking more possible.

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    Source: http://www.giverslog.com/?p=1089


    Another recipe: http://www.worthpinning.com/2013/03/french-macarons-with-nutella.html
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  4. Tabassum07
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    Tabassum07 Smile for Allah

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    :salam:

    Today I discovered that I've eaten macaroons before, but never macarons. :)
  5. sister herb
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    sister herb Official TTI Chef

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    I have eaten both but I liked macaroons much more. They are easier to do also (I think).
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  6. Italiano
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    Italiano Junior Member

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    Assalamu Alaykum.
    May I suggest you an interesting variant of macaroons, sister herb?
  7. sister herb
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    sister herb Official TTI Chef

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    Sure. Every new ideas are welcomed. What do you think about this idea?

    Brownie Macaroon Pie

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    INGREDIENTS
    3 ounces unsweetened chocolate, chopped
    ½ cup (1 stick) unsalted butter
    3 eggs, lightly beaten
    ¾ cup sugar
    ½ cup flour
    1 teaspoon vanilla extract
    2/3 cup sweetened condensed milk
    2-2/3 cup sweetened flaked coconut

    DIRECTIONS
    1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F/175 C. Coat a 9-inch pie plate with nonstick spray.
    2. Melt chocolate and butter in a small saucepan over low heat. Stir together eggs, sugar, flour and vanilla and add to chocolate mixture. Pour into prepared pie plate.
    3. Combine sweetened condensed milk and coconut. Spoon over chocolate mixture, leaving a 1-inch border around the edges. Bake for 35 to 40 minutes, until center is firm but still a little moist. Cool completely on wire rack.

    Source: http://www.elizabethwoodson.com/blog/article/brownie-macaroon-pie/
  8. Italiano
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    Italiano Junior Member

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    Sounds good...:juich-spring-klap:
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  9. sister herb
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    sister herb Official TTI Chef

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    Coconut Cardamom Macaroons

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    2 large egg whites
    1/4 cup sugar
    1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract
    1/8 teaspoon salt
    1/8 teaspoon ground cardamom
    1 1/2 cups flaked sweetened coconut

    Preparation


    Preheat oven to 325 F/160 C.

    Place egg whites in a medium bowl; lightly beat with a whisk. Add sugar, vanilla, salt, and cardamom; stir well with a whisk until foamy. Add coconut; toss well to combine. Loosely pack coconut mixture into a 1-tablespoon measuring spoon. Turn out onto a baking sheet lined with parchment paper. Spoon remaining coconut mixture by tablespoonfuls onto prepared pan to form 20 mounds. Bake at 325 F/160 C for 20 - 23 minutes or until golden all over. Cool on pan few minutes; cool completely on a wire rack.

    Note:
    Make-ahead tip:
    Bake cookies, and cool completely on a wire rack; store in an airtight container at room temperature for up to a week.

    Source: http://www.myrecipes.com/recipe/coconut-cardamom-macaroons-50400000117857/

    You can also dip them to the melted chocolate.

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