Zakaah al-Fitr

Discussion in 'Ramadan & Eid al Fitr' started by ayman, Oct 6, 2006.

  1. ayman
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    ayman La Ilaha Illa Allah Staff Member

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    1. MEANING
    Zakaah al-Fitr is often referred to as Sadaqah al-Fitr. The word Fitr means
    the same as Iftaar, breaking a fast and it comes from the same root word as
    Futoor which means breakfast. Thus, Islamically, Zakaah al-Fitr is the name
    given to charity which is distributed at the end of the fast of Ramadaan.




    2. CLASSIFICATION
    Sadaqah al-Fitr is a duty which is Waajib on every Muslim, whether male or
    female, minor or adult as long as he/she has the means to do so.


    The proof that this form of charity is compulsory can be found in the Sunnah
    whereby Ibn `Umar reported that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam)
    made Zakaah al-Fitr compulsory on every slave, freeman, male, female, young
    and old among the Muslims; one Saa` of dried dates or one Saa` of barely. [collected by Bukhaaree - Arabic/English, vol. 2, p. 339, no. 579]


    The head of the household may pay the required amount for the other members.
    Abu Sa'eed al-Khudree said, "On behalf of our young and old, free men and
    slaves, we used to take out during Allaah's Messenger's (sallallaahu 'alaihi
    wa sallam) lifetime one Saa` of grain, cheese or raisins". [collected by
    Muslim - English transl. vol. 2, p. 469, no. 2155]


    3. SIGNIFICANCE
    The significant role played by Zakaah in the circulation of wealth within
    the Islamic society is also played by the Sadaqah al-Fitr. However, in the
    case of Sadaqah al-Fitr, each individual is required to calculate how much
    charity is due from himself and his dependents and go into the community in
    order to find those who deserve such charity. Thus, Sadaqah al-Fitr plays a
    very important role in the development of the bonds of community. The rich
    are obliged to come in direct contact with the poor, and the poor are put in
    contact with the extremely poor. This contact between the various levels of
    society helps to build real bonds of brotherhood and love within the Islamic
    community and trains those who have, to be generous to those who do not
    have.


    4. PURPOSE
    The main purpose of Zakaah al-Fitr is to provide those who fasted with the
    means of making up for their errors during the month of fasting. Zakaah
    al-Fitr also provides the poor with a means with which they can celebrate
    the festival of breaking the fast (`Eed al-Fitr) along with the rest of the
    Muslims.


    Ibn Abbaas reported, "The Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) made
    Zakaah al-Fitr compulsory so that those who fasted may be purified of their
    idle deeds and shameful talk (committed during Ramadaan) and so that the
    poor may be fed. Whoever gives it before Salaah will have it accepted as
    Zakaah, while he who gives it after the Salaah has given Sadaqah." [collected by Abu Dawood - Eng. transl. vol. 2, p. 421, no. 1605 - rated Saheeh by Shaikh Naser Al-Albanee]


    Hence, the goal of Sadaqah al-Fitr is the spiritual development of the
    Believers. By making them give up some of their wealth, the believers are
    taught the higher moral characteristics of generosity, compassion (sympathy
    for the unfortunate), gratitude to God and the righteousness. But, since
    Islaam does not neglect man's material need, part of the goal of Zakaah
    al-Fitr is the economic well-being of the poorer members of society.


    5. CONDITIONS
    Zakaah al-Fitr is only Waajib for a particular period of time. If one misses
    the time period without a good reason, he has sinned and can not make it up.
    This form of charity becomes obligatory from sunset on the last day of
    fasting and remains obligatory until the beginning of Salaah al-'Eed' (i.e.
    shortly after sunrise on the following day). However, it can be paid prior
    to the above mentioned period, as many of the Sahaabah (companions of the
    Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) ) used to pay Sadaqah al-Fitr a
    couple days before the `Eed.


    Naafi reported that the Prophet's companion Ibn `Umar used to give it to
    those who would accept it and the people used to give it a day or two before the `Eed. [collected by al-Bukhaaree - Arabic/English, Vol. 2, p.339, no. 579]


    Ibn `Umar reported that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) ordered
    that it (Zakaah al-Fitr) be given before people go to make the Salaah (al-'Eed).


    And Ibn `Abbaas reported that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)
    said, "Whoever gives it before the Salaah will have it accepted as Zakaah,
    while he who gives it after the Salaah (will not, for it will only be
    considered as) ordinary charity." Therefore, one who forgets to pay this
    Zakaah al-Fitr on time should do so as soon as possible even though it will
    not be counted as Zakaah al-Fitr.


    6. RATE
    The amount of Zakaah is the same for everyone regardless of their different
    income brackets. The minimum amount is one Saa` (two handfuls) of food,
    grain or dried fruit for each member of the family. This calculation is
    based on Ibn `Umar's report that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)
    made Zakaah al-Fitr compulsory and payable by a Saa` of dried dates or a
    Saa` of barley.


    The Sahaabee, Abu Sa`eed al-Khudree said, "In the Prophet's time, we used to
    give it (Zakaah al-Fitr) as a Saa` of food, dried dates, barley, raisins or
    dried cheese". [collected by al-Bukhaaree - Arabic/English vol. 2, p. 340, no. 582]
  2. Abul Harith
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    Abul Harith Active Member Staff Member

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    Question:
    Is the hadeeth “The fast of Ramadaan will not be taken up [to Allaah] until zakaat al-fitr is paid” saheeh?
    If the fasting Muslim is in need and does not possess the threshold (nisaab) of zakaah, is he obliged to pay zakaat al-fitr because of the soundness of this hadeeth or other saheeh shar’i evidence that is proven in the Sunnah?.

    Answer:
    Praise be to Allaah.

    Sadaqat al-fitr is obligatory upon every Muslim who is self-supporting, if he has one saa’ or more than he needs of food for himself and his family on the day and night of Eid.

    The basis for that is the report narrated from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) enjoined zakaat al-fitr, a saa’ of dates, or a saa’ of barley, upon all the Muslims, slave and free, male and female, young and old, and he commanded that it be paid before the people went out to pray.” Agreed upon; this version was narrated by al-Bukhaari.

    And Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri narrated: “We used to pay zakaat al-fitr when the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was alive, a saa’ of food or a saa’ of dates or a saa’ of barley or a saa’ of raisins or a saa’ of dried yoghurt.” Agreed upon.

    It is acceptable to give a saa’ of the local staple food such as rice etc.

    What is meant by a saa’ here is the saa’ of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), which is four times the amount that may be held in the two hands of a man of average build. If a person does not pay zakaat al-fitr, he is sinning, and he has to make it up.

    With regard to the hadeeth mentioned, we do not know whether it is saheeh or not.

    We ask Allaah to give you strength and to make our words and deeds and yours righteous.

    And Allaah is the Source if strength.



    Standing Committee for Academic Research and Issuing Fatwas, 9/364
  3. Abul Harith
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    How much zakaat al-fitr is and when it should be paid

    How much zakaat al-fitr is and when it should be paid

    Question:
    We are members of a North African group living in Barcelona. How can we work out how much zakaat al-fitr is?.

    Answer:
    Praise be to Allaah.

    It was proven from the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) that he enjoined zakaat al-fitr on the Muslims, one saa’ of dates or one saa’ of barley, and he commanded that it be given before the people went out to the (Eid) prayer. In al-Saheehayn it is narrated that Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: At the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) we used to give one saa’ of food, or one saa’ of dates, or one saa’ of barley, or one saa’ of raisins.

    Some of the scholars have interpreted “food” (ta’aam) in this hadeeth as referring to wheat; others interpreted it as meaning the staple food of the country, whatever it is, whether it is wheat, corn, pearl millet or whatever. This is the correct view, because zakaah is a help from the rich to the poor, and the Muslim does not have to help with anything other than the staple food of his country. Undoubtedly rice is the staple food in the land of the Two Holy Sanctuaries (Saudi Arabia) and it is a good and valuable food; it is better than the barley that is mentioned in the text. Hence it is known that there is nothing wrong with giving rice as zakaat al-fitr.

    What must be given is a saa’ of any kind of staple food, i.e., a saa’ of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), which is four complete scoops as scooped up with two hands, according to al-Qaamoos etc. In modern weights this is equivalent to approximately three kilograms. If a Muslim gives a kilo of rice or some other staple food of his country, that is sufficient even if it is not one of the types mentioned in the hadeeth, according to the more correct of the two scholarly opinions. There is nothing wrong with giving the equivalent amount by weight, which is approximately three kilograms.

    Zakaat al-fitr must be given on behalf of all Muslims, young and old, male and female, free and slave. With regard to a foetus, it is not obligatory to give it on his behalf according to scholarly consensus, but it is mustahabb, because ‘Uthmaan (may Allaah be pleased with him) did that.

    It is also obligatory to give it before the Eid prayer, and it is not permissible to delay it until after the Eid prayer. There is nothing wrong with giving it one or two days before the Eid. Hence it is known that the earliest time when it may be given, according to the more correct of the two scholarly views, is the night of the 28th of Ramadaan, because the month may be twenty-nine or thirty days. The companions of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to give it one or two days before Eid.

    Those to whom it must be given are the poor and needy. It was proven that Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) enjoined zakaat al-fitr as a purification for the fasting person from idle and obscene speech, and to feed the poor. Whoever gives it before the prayer, it is zakaat al-fitr, and whoever gives it after the prayer, it is ordinary charity. This was narrated by Abu Dawood and classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.

    It is not permissible to pay the value in money, according to the majority of scholars; this view has the stronger evidence. Rather it must be given in the form of food, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and his companions (may Allaah be pleased with them) did. This is also the view of the majority of the ummah. We ask Allaah to help us and all the Muslims to understand His religion properly and adhere to it steadfastly, and to guide us, for He is the Most Generous, Most Kind.

    Majmoo’ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, 14/200.

    This is the estimation of Shaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him), who reckoned the weight of zakaat al-fitr as being approximately three kilograms.

    This was also the estimate of the scholars of the Standing Committee (9/371).

    Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) estimated it in grams as being 2100 grams, as it says in Fataawa al-Zakaah, p. 274-276.

    This discrepancy occurred because a saa’ is a measure of volume, not weight.

    The scholars worked it out by weight so that it would be easier to work out. It is well known that the weight of grains varies; some are light and some are heavy, and some are in between. In fact the weight of a saa’ of the same kind of grain may vary, and new may weigh more than old. Hence if people err on the side of caution and give more, that will be better.

    See al-Mughni, 4/168, where it mentions something similar about working out the nisaab of crops by weight.

    And Allaah knows best.
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  4. usman260
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    as an undergraduate am I also included or my dad stil has tom do it for me.
  6. tinabrian101
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    nice post thanx for sharing this realy helps me :)
  7. englishelm11
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    “The people of the days of ignorance used to have two days in which they celebrate every year, but when the Prophet ﷺ arrived in Madinah, he said: “You used to have two days in which you celebrated, but Allah has substituted these with that which is better; the days of the lesser and greater ‘Eid.”[ Source: An-Nasai.]

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