HISTORY OF KHAWAARIJ Al-Khawarij is plural for “Kharij”, meaning one who rebels against the acknowledged Muslim ruler whom Islam obliges every Muslim to obey and not rebel against.
This definition of Al- Khawarij, which is taken from Islamic terminology, has become a trademark for the twelve thousand Muslims who rebelled against Caliph Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, and this includes all the groups that followed their way of understanding the religion.
These groups have since been known as “Al-Khawarij” even though they carried different names.
Among those groups are: Al- Muh’akkimah, Ash- Sharat, Al- ‘Haroriyyah, An- Nawa-sib, and Al- Mariqhah.
Al-Khawarij are the people whom the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, mentioned when he said, what translated means, “A group will go astray during a time of division between Muslims. The closest among the adversaries (the side of Ali bin Abi Talib and the side of Mu’awiyah) to the Truth will kill them (the deviant group, Al-Khawarij).”
Also, the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, said regarding a man who once accused him of injustice, “From among the offspring of this man there will rise a people who will read the Quran but it will not go beyond their throats (meaning it will not enter their hearts). They will kill Muslims and spare Idol-worshippers. They will deviate from Islam (as fast and clean) as an arrow pierces the game. If I live to witness their appearance, I will kill them as the people of ‘Aad (whom Allah utterly destroyed and annihilated because of their disbelief) were killed.” [Al-Bukhari & Muslim].
He further said, “Just before the end of time, young, idiotic people will rise. They will say words similar to (the good words) of the best people. They will recite the Quran, but it will not go beyond their throats. They will deviate from the religion as fast as an arrow pierces the game. If you meet them, kill them, for killing them will bring about a reward from Allah on the Day of Resurrection for whoever kills them.” [Al-Bukhari & Muslim].
The companions of the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, were unanimous in their decision to fight Al-Khawarij. Also, the majority of the scholars of Islam state that it is an obligation to fight them.
Soon after they appeared as a distinct group, Al-Khawarij divided into seven groups, among them Al- Muh’akkimah who fought Ali bin Abi Talib.
Al-Khawarij accused Ali of Kufr and announced their animosity towards him. They departed to Haroraa’ and chose two men as their leaders, one to lead them in prayer and the other to lead their forces in battle. When Ali realized the danger posed by these people, he sent Abdullah Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, to debate them and expose their erroneous ways. Ibn Abbas argued with them and refuted the arguments supporting the positions they took. Many of them abandoned the camp of Al-’Haroriyyah and rejoined the camp of Caliph Ali bin Abi Talib.
However, their leaders and those who remained with them refused to abandon their rebellion against the righteous Khalifah, Ali. They announced that their campaign of war against their adversaries will continue. Ali bin Abi Talib then decided to meet them himself.
He called upon them to rejoin the ranks of the Khalifah and abandon their deviant ways. He also refuted their arguments and nullified their misguided way of understanding the religion.
However, they persisted in their defiance of the Khalifah and camped their forces at the area of An-Nahrawan.
On their way to An-Nahrawan, Al-Khawarij met Abdullah -- the son of Khabbab bin Al-Aratt, a noble companion of the Messenger Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, and seized him. They asked him, “Who are you?” He replied, “I am Abdullah bin Khabbab, the companion of the Messenger Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam.” They said, “Narrate to us a Hadith you heard from your father who related it to the Messenger Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam.” He said, “I heard my father say, ‘The Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, said, ‘There will be a Fitnah (calamity and division) in which those who sit idle are better than those who walk, and those who walk are better than those who rush. Therefore, whoever has no choice but to kill or be killed, let him be killed and let him not be the killer.’” They asked him, “What do you say regarding Abu Bakr and Umar?” Abdullah said good words of praise regarding them. They said, “What do you say with regards to At- Ta’hkim (when Ali and Mu’awiyah reverted to some of the companions to judge between them in their dispute, according to the Quran and Sunnah)?”
He said, “I say that Ali has better knowledge in the Book of Allah, is more careful with the religion, and has more wisdom than you!” They said, “You do not follow the Truth and Guidance. Rather, you follow men according to their fame.” They then said to him, “This Quran (which you carry) around your neck commands us to kill you.” He said, “Whoever the Quran preserves his life, you preserve his life in turn.
And whoever the Quran sheds his blood, give him death in turn.” Then, they brought Abdullah bin Khabbab closer to the river, and one of them, Musmi’ bin Qhadali, slit his throat. Then, they entered his house and killed his children and also his wife, who was pregnant, and slit open her stomach.
When Ali bin Talib heard what Al-Khawarij did to Abdullah bin Khabbab and his family, he led an expedition of four thousand soldiers to arrest those who committed this atrocity. When he reached their area, he asked them to deliver those who killed Abdullah. They said to Ali’s emissary, “We all killed him. And, furthermore, if we catch you (meaning
Ali) we will kill you too.” Then, Ali prepared to fight them.
But before the battle commenced, he asked them, “What do you dislike as regards my matter?” They said, “We hate that you, when we fought with you on the Day (incident) of Al-Jamal, allowed for us their (the side of ‘Aaishah, Tal’hah, and Az-Zubair) possessions after we defeated them but did not allow us to seize their women and children as slaves. Why did you allow us to shed their blood and seize their possessions but not their women and children?” Ali said, “I only allowed you to seize their possession in return for their looting the Muslim treasury in the city of Basrah before I came to meet them (to convince them to end their rebellion). As for their women and children, they did not fight against us and they, therefore, still enjoyed the rights of Muslims who live in the Islamic state. Also, if I had allowed their women for you, who among you would have liked to take ‘Aaishah (the Prophet’s wife) as his share?” They became ashamed and silent.
Thereafter, Ali refuted all their arguments and, as a consequence, eight thousand of them rejoined his camp. However, four thousand of them insisted on fighting, led by Abdullah bin Wahb Ar-Rasibi and Thu Al-Khuwaysirah (also known as Thu Ath-Thadiyyah), whose name was Hurqus bin Zaid.
Soon afterwards, the battle between Ali and Al-Khawarij commenced, and Ali’s army defeated and killed them all except nine people.
After the battle ended, Ali ordered his soldiers to search for Thu Ath- Thadiyyah, who was then found among the dead. Ali then said, “Allah and His Messenger have said the truth,” because before he passed away, the Prophet Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam had told Ali that he should search for Thu Ath-Thadiyyah among the dead when he meets these rebels.
This sect of Al-Khawarij, also known as Al-Mu’hakkimah, considers Uthman, Ali, ‘Aaishah, Tal’hah, and Az-Zubair as Kuffar. They also oblige the removal or assassination of the Muslim ruler who does not agree with their way of understanding the religion.
Furthermore, they accept the Muslim Ummah being leaderless, allow shedding the blood of the women and children of their adversaries, consider those who fall into major sins as Kuffar, and prohibit marrying the women of those who do not follow them, because they consider them also as Kuffar.
Also, among the sub-sects of Al-Khawarij is Al-Bayhasiyyah. They are the followers of Abu Bayhas, Al- Haytham bin Jabir. They claim that knowledge is only knowing Allah and what the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, was sent with. They consider whoever falls into an action not knowing if it permissible or forbidden as Kafir, since he lacks the “knowledge”.
Al-Azariqhah is another Khawarij sub-sect. They are the followers of Nafi’ bin Al-Azraqh who was known as Abu Rashid. When he first appeared, he rebelled against Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr -- a companion of the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam. Many people from Oman and Al-Yamamah also joined Nafi’. They later moved to Persia and took over the area of Al- Ahwaz after they killed Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr’s deputy in that area. They soon controlled Al-Ahwaz and adjacent areas in Persia.
As is the case with other deviant sects, Al-Azariqhah consider their adversaries as Kuffar. They consider those who join their ranks as believers and all others who do not as Kuffar. Yet, they believe that whoever joins their ranks must first be tested to prove his allegiance by ordering him to kill a Muslim captive. Otherwise, he would be killed himself. Also, Al- Azariqhah permit killing the women and children of their adversaries and consider those adversaries to be bound to dwell in Hell for eternity along with their women and children. They also consider the areas that do not join them to be areas of Kufr. Furthermore, they abandon stoning the adulterer, compel women to pray and fast while in their menses, consider Muslims who commit major sins as Kuffar, and allow shedding the blood of Muslims who do not join their ranks. Yet, they prohibit shedding the blood of Jews and Christians who live under Muslim control!
This is just as the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, described them that, “They kill Muslims and spare idol-worshippers.” Also, Al-Azariqhah would cut the hand and arm of the thief, while Islam commands cutting the thief’s hand only from the wrist. They also claim that the Ayah,
And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you (O Mohammad) in this worldly life.[2:204], describes Ali bin Abi Talib, and that the Ayah,
And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the Pleasure of Allah. [2:207], describes Ibn Muljim, the cursed criminal who killed Ali, may Allah be pleased with him.
Najdah bin Amir was the leader of yet another Khawarij subsect called “An-Najdaat”, which established its stronghold in Al-Yamamah. They believe that it is an act of Kufr to consider as Kuffar those followers who could not physically join their forces. They also believe that those who agree with their beliefs will not enter Hell, and if they are punished in Hell, it will be because of their other sins and not because they joined their sect. They also give their loyalty to their followers who fall into major sins but consider insisting on committing minor sins as Kufr. Furthermore, they do not consider those who persist on committing major sins as Kuffar. In addition, they allow shedding the blood of their neighbors as well as their adversaries.
Another sub-sect of Al- Khawarij is As-Safriyyah, followers of Ziyad bin Al-Asfar. This group does not consider as Kuffar those who believe in their way but do not join their ranks. Also, they do not consider the children of their adversaries as Kuffar or that they will abide in Hell forever. They differ, however, on whether those who commit major sins are Kuffar or not. Some of them consider such sinners as Kuffar. Others, on the other hand, disagree, except in the case of those caught committing major sins and are thus punished for these sins by the rulers.Some of them claim that major sins that have prescribed punishment will not cause whoever commits them to become a Kafir, while actions that do not have a prescribed punishments, such as abandoning the obligatory prayer or Az-Zakat, will cause one to become a Kafir. They also allow women to assume leadership positions.
Another Khawarij sub-sect, “Al-Ajaridah”, are followers of Al- Karim bin Ajrad. This group disowns their own children before they reach the age of puberty. After the child becomes an adult, they oblige calling him unto Islam and teaching him matters of the religion. They do not allow shedding the blood of Ahlu As- Sunnah except if they meet them in battle. They also consider those who commit major sins as Kuffar.
Ath-Tha’alibah is yet another Khawarij sub-sect. This group was started by Tha’labah bin Mashkan, who used to be a follower of the Ajaridah before he started his own sect. This group later divided into six sects, the first being the followers of Tha’labah himself who persisted on his path. As for those who formed their own sects after they were followers of Ath-Tha’alibah, they include Al- Ma’badiyyah, followers of Ma’bad bin Abdurra’hman, who declare other Tha’alibah as Kuffar and who used to take Az-Zakat due on the possessions of their rich slaves. They also include Al-Akhnasiyyah, followers of Al- Akhnas bin Qays, who differed with Ath-Tha’alibah when they hesitated to call those who might appear to be disbelievers, yet conceal their Islam, as Kuffar. These sects also include followers of Rashid At-Tawsi, who were called Ar-Rashidiyyah. This sect disowned all those who disagree with them. There is also Al-Mukarramiyyah, followers of Abu Mukarram Al-’Ijli. This group considers those who fall into major sins as Kuffar because they are ignorant about Allah.Again, this group also considers those who disagree with them as Kuffar, and their adversaries from among Ath- Tha’alibah considered them Kuffar in turn. The sixth Tha’alibah sub-sect was called Ash-Shaybaniyyah, followers of Shayban bin Salam. This is the sect which Abu Muslim Al-Khurasani, the leader of the Abbasid armies, fought and defeated, killing Shayban and capturing the rest of his followers. This was the end of Ath- Tha’alibah who denied Allah’s Attributes and also resembled Allah with the creation.
Another major sub-sect of Al-Khawarij is the one still known as “Al- Ibadhiyyah”, who are the followers of Abdullah bin Ibadh Al-Murri. He permitted Al-Ibadhiyyah to marry women from Ahlu As-Sunnah and accepted the testimony of Ahlu As- Sunnah even against the Ibadhiyyah Themselves because they consider that the general name of Islam still bonds them together.
This group only allowed the shedding the blood of Ahlu As-Sunnah in battle. They fell into confusion when they considered their adversaries as Kuffar (disbelievers), but not Mushrikeen (polytheist).
Al-Ibadhiyyah also divided into six sects.
The first is Al-Yazidiyyah, followers of Yazid bin Anas who claimed that another Prophet will be sent for non-Arabs and that his law will replace Prophet Mohammad’s Law. They also claimed that Arabs who attest that there is no god except Allah and that Mohammad is His Messenger are believers even if they do not actually embrace and abide by Islamic laws. Therefore, according to this false claim, Arab Jews and Christians are considered believers if they only declare the Shahadatayn (the Testimony) with their tongues.
The second sub-sect of Al- Ibadhyyah is known as Al-Hafsiyyah, followers of Al-Hafs bin Abi Al- Miqdam. They claim that belief is merely knowing Allah and that this suffices if one disbelieves in the Prophets, the angels, Paradise, Hell, Resurrection, and Reckoning. They consider those who know Allah to be saved from Shirk even if they commit all types of major sins.
The third Ibadhi sub-sect is known as Al-’Harithiyyah, followers of Al-’Harith bin Yazid. This sect denies Predestination and Allah’s Will and condones acts of worship that are not meant for the sake of Allah. The last three Ibadhi sub-sects are Al- Ibrahimiyyah, Al-Maymoniyyah, and Al-Waqifiyyah.
We have shown how this deviant sect, Al-Khawarij, divided among themselves, and we also clarified the major beliefs of different Khawarij sub-sects.
From this short summary of their beliefs and practices, we now know the imminent danger of their beliefs, many of which still flourish among ignorant Muslims in the present time.
The beliefs of Al-Khawarij have always been and still pose grave danger to Islam and Muslims.
We ask Allah for protection and safety from the misguided beliefs of Al-Khawarij and their likes, for He is the All-Hearer and the only One Who fulfills the Du’aa’.
THE GREAT DEBATE of Ibn Abbas’s
The story of Ibn Abbas’s (May Allah be pleased with him and his Father) debate against them is in the Mustadrik of Hakam (2/150-152) in an authentic chain and upon the conditions of acceptance of Imam Muslim.
In it is the statement of Ibn Abbas:
أتيتُكم من عند صحابة النَّبيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم من المهاجرين والأنصار، لأبلِّغكم ما يقولون،المخبرون بما يقولون، فعليهم نزل القرآن، وهم أعلمُ بالوحي منكم، وفيهم أنزل، وليس فيكم منهم أحد
“I come to you from the Companions of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) from amongst the Muhajireen and Ansaar to inform you of what they say. They were present when the Qur’an was revealed, and they are more knowledgeable about the revelation than you are and were present at its descending, and not a single one of you is from them. So some of them said: لا تخاصموا قريشاً Do not dispute with a person from the Quraish because
Allah says: بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ خَصِمُونَ But they are a quarrelsome people Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him and his Father) said:
وأتيتُ قوماً لم أرَ قوماً قطُّ أشدَّ اجتهاداً منهم، مسهمة وجوههم من السَّهر، كأنَّ أيديهم وركبهم تثنى عليهم، فمضى من
“I never saw a people striving harder in doing deeds. Their faces were marked with lines from abstaining from sleep. It was as if their hands and knees praised them.
So those who were present proceeded, and some of them said,
لنكلِّمنَّه ولننظرنَّ ما يقول“By Allah we will speak to him and debate what he says”I asked:
أخبروني ماذا نقمتم على ابن عمِّ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وصهره والمهاجرين والأنصار؟“Why do you have resentment against the cousin of the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) his in-laws, the Muhajireen and Ansaar? They said:” (because of) ثلاثاً Three things” I asked: ما هنَّ؟ “What are they?”
They said: أمَّا إحداهنَّ فإنَّه حكم الرِّجالَ في أمر الله، “As for the first one it is that he made men arbitrators in the matters of Allah. And Allah said:
إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلاَّ لِلّهِ Verily! The decision rests only with Allah [Yusuf: 67]
I said: هذه واحدة “ This is one” And they said:
ولَم يسْب ولَم يغنَم، فلئن كان الذي قاتل كفَّاراً لقد حلَّ سبيُهم وغنيمتهم،
ولئن كانوا مؤمنين ما حلَّ قتالُهم“As for the other, it is that he fought and did not take captives or booty of war. If the ones being fought are disbelievers, then indeed it is permissible to take them captive and take the booty of war, and if they were believers it would not be permissible to fight them.
I said: هذه ثنتان، فما الثالثة؟ “ That’s two, so what is the third one?”
They said: إنَّه مَحا نفسَه من أمير المؤمنين، فهو أمير الكافرين “He wiped out the title of ‘Amir al-Mu’mineen’ for himself, so he is the Amir of the disbelievers.”
I said: أعندكم سوى هذا؟ “Do you have anything others than these? They said: حسبنا هذا “ This suffices us” So I said to them:
أرأيتم إن قرأت عليكم من كتاب الله ومن سنَّة نبيِّه صلى الله عليه وسلم
ما يُردُّ به قولُكم أتَرضَون؟“If I read of the Qur’an and Sunnah that which refutes these claims, will you be pleased? They said: نعم! “Yes” So I said:
أمَّا قولكم: حكَّم الرِّجال في أمر الله، فأنا أقرأ عليكم ما قد رُدَّ حكمُه إلى الرِّجال في ثمن ربع درهم، في أرنب ونحوها من الصيد
As for your statement: ‘A man has arbitrated in the matter of Allah’, I will read to you what has given the power of arbitration to men concerning a killed rabbit and the likes of that which is hunted which price is worth a quarter of a dirham. Allah says:
( يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَقْتُلُواْ الصَّيْدَ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ ))
إلى قوله: (( يَحْكُمُ بِهِ ذَوَا عَدْلٍ مِّنكُمْ ))،O you who believe! Kill not game while you are in a state of Ihram (for Hajj or 'Umrah), and whosoever of you kills it intentionally, the penalty is an offering, brought to the Ka'bah, of an eatable animal (i.e. sheep, goat, cow, etc.) equivalent to the one he killed, as adjudged by two just men among you; [Maidah: 95]
فنشدتكم الله: أحُكم الرِّجال في أرنب ونحوها من الصيد أفضل أم حكمهم في دمائهم وصلاح ذات بينهم؟!
وأن تعلموا أنَّ الله لو شاء لَحَكم ولَم يُصيِّر ذلك إلى الرِّجال، وفي المرأة وزوجهاI ask you by Allah, is the arbitration of men concerning a rabbit and its like of hunted animals better than their arbitration regarding bloodshed and reconciliation between themselves? And you are aware that if Allah wished he would have decided the matters himself and not left it to men. And concerning a woman and her husband Allah says:
وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ شِقَاقَ بَيْنِهِمَا فَابْعَثُواْ حَكَماً مِّنْ أَهْلِهِ وَحَكَماً مِّنْ أَهْلِهَا إِن يُرِيدَا إِصْلاَحاً يُوَفِّقِ اللّهُ بَيْنَهُمَا"If you fear separation between them, appoint an arbitrator from his family and from her family; if they both wish for peace, Allah will cause their reconciliation" [Nis’aa: 35]
فجعل الله حكم الرِّجال سنة مأمونة، أخَرَجتُ من هذه؟So Allah has made the judgement of men a reliable Sunnah. Have I convinced you on this?” They replied: : نعم! “Yes” (I said to them):
قاتَل ولم يسْب ولم يغنم، أَتَسبُون أمَّكم عائشة، ثمَّ تستحلُّون منها ما يُستحلُّ من غيرها؟!
فلئن فعلتم لقد كفرتُم، وهي أمُّكم، ولئن قلتُم: ليست أمَّنا لقد كفرتُمRegarding your saying ‘You fought them, but did not seize their booty nor capture them,’ Can you capture your Mother 'Aisha then make permissible concerning her what is permissibility concerning other female slaves.
If you say that she can be captured and treated like any of the other female slaves, you have surely committed disbelief, because she is your mother. If you say that ‘she is not our mother’ than you have also committed disbelief, for Allah says:
النَّبِيُّ أَوْلَى بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَأَزْوَاجُهُ أُمَّهَاتُهُمْThe Prophet is closer to the believers than their ownselves, and his wives are their (believers') mothers (as regards respect and marriage). [Ahzab: 6]
فأنتم تدورون بين ضلالَتين، أيّهما صرتُم إليها صرتُم إلى ضلالة، فنظر بعضُهم إلى بعض،You are thus hovering between two deviations. Whichever one you go towards, you go towards misguidance.”
So some of them began to look at each other.I asked: أخرجتُ من هذه؟ “Have I convinced you?” They replied: نعم! “ Yes” (I said to them):
مَحا اسمَه من أمير المؤمنين، فأنا آتيكم بمَن ترضَون وأريكم، قد سمعتُم أنَّ النَّبيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم الحُديبية كاتَبَ سُهيل بن عمرو وأبا سفيان بن حرب،
فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لأمير المؤمنين
اكتب يا علي: هذا ما اصطلح عليه محمد رسول الله، فقال المشركون:
لا والله! لو نعلم أنَّك رسول الله ما قاتلناك،
فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : اللَّهم إنَّك تعلمُ أنِّي رسول الله، اكتب يا علي:
هذا ما اصطلح عليه محمد بن عبد الله، فوالله لرسول الله خيرٌ من علي،
وما أخرجه من النبوة حين محا نفسَهAnd as for your statement that he wiped out the title of ‘Amir al- Mu’mineen’ for himself, I will show and bring you proof by one whom you are pleased with. I heard on the Day of Hudaybiyyah, when the treaty was being drafted by Suhail bin Amr and Abu Sufyan bin Harb, the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) say to the Amir ul Mu’mineen: "Write O’ 'Ali: ‘This is what has been agreed upon by Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah’." The Mushrikeen objected to this saying: "No, By Allah, if we believed that you were the Messenger of Allah, we would not have fought you." Upon this, the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) said: O’ Allah you know that I am the Messenger of Allah. Write O’ Ali ‘This is what has been agreed upon by Muhammad bin Abdullah.’ …For I swear by Allah that the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) is better than Ali, and erasing his title did not remove his Prophethood.
Abdullah Bin Abbas (May Allah be Pleased with him and his Father) said:
: فرجع من القوم ألفان وقُتل سائرُهم على ضلالةSo (after this), two-thousand of them (the Khawaarij) returned to the truth and the rest of them were killed upon falsehood.
THERE IS ENOUGH BENEFIT FOR ANYONE WHO HAS INTELLECT.
Shaykhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah said,
فإن عامة ضلال أهل البدع كان بهذا السبب، فإنهم صاروا يحملون كلام الله ورسوله على ما يدعون أنه دال عليه، وليس الأمر كذلك
“Majority of innovations have their roots in misunderstanding of Islaamic texts, for those who established innovations had wrongful perception of the Word of Allaah which they used to back up their innovations.”
The scholars say,
من اتباع المتشابهات الأخذ بالمطلقات قبل النظر في مقيِّداتها، أو في العمومات من غير تأمل في مخصِّصاتها، وكذلك العكس بأن يكون النص مقيدًا فيُطلق، أو خاصًا فيُعمّ بالرأي من غير دليل سواه، فإن هذا المسلك رميٌ في عماية واتباع للهوى بالدليل، وحينئذ فالخلل في هذه المسالك الاجتهادية يوقع في أخطاء فاحشة عقائدية وفرعية
“It is part of following the ambiguous evidences to take to absolute evidences before looking at its restricted aspects or to take to general rules and disregard its particular aspects like making particularized or restricted evidence a general or unrestricted one or vice versa without any tangible evidences. This may cause grave mistakes.
For instance, the Khawaarij who revolted against ‘Alee said, “There is no judge save Allaah”, misinterpreting the Word of Allaah, “The judgement is but Allaah’s.” They thereby gave this verse a wrong meaning.
The Khawaarij sect was later influenced by scholastic theology and its principles became very close to those of the Jahmite and Mu’tazilite sects.
They center upon the following matters: (1) Imputing kufr upon ‘Ali, ‘Uthmaan and other sahaabah ﻦﻴﻌﻤﺟأ ﻢﻬﻨﻋ ﷲا ﻲﺿر .
(2) The right to rebel and fight the Muslim rulers who may err or sin.
(3) Justifying the rebellion and fight against disobedient Muslims (rulers and/or ruled) and that it is permissible for them to secede from the general body of the Muslims.
(4) They believe that the Qur’aan is created. However, the Qur’aan is the literal Word of Allaah Who uttered it in letter and sound and which He Spoke to Jibreel عليه وسلم , directly without a mediator, and who then brought it down to the Prophet Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ). The Qur’aan is neither the word of Jib reel nor the word of Prophet Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ).
(5) They distort the meanings of Allaah’s Attributes by resorting to figurative interpretation.
(6) Like the twelver Shee’ites and other deviant sects, they deny that the believers will see Allaah on the Day of Resurrection. This contradicts what is asserted in the Qur’aan and authentic sunnah .
(7) Imputing kufr on the Muslims who commit major sins.
(8) The majority of the Khawaarij deny the actual punishment in the grave that Allaah inflicts upon those who deserve it.
(9) They speak ill about the scholars الطعنُ في العلماء See the incident with Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم and Ibn Abbaas, how they treated them, this is the common amongst the mis-guided youths of today, ignorant, foolish in understanding.
The aforementioned are some of the major characteristics of the Khawaarij.I intended to give the reader some background about this very dangerous sect and which has influenced many Muslim groups and parties in our times leading to bloodshed in many parts of the Muslim World. The bloody confrontations are hard to stop in some places and that has distorted the view of Islam in many parts of the world. The truth, however, is emerging and will inshaa’ Allaah completely emerge on the hands of the true followers of Islam who are working hard to correct this problem with the good word without compromising the ‘aqeedah nor the manhaj . We should be able to present the truth without imitating the kufaar and their ways. In this respect, the words of Imaam Maalik ) ﷲا ﻪﻤﺣر ( are remembered: “Nothing will benefit this ummah to come except that which benefited its early generations .” Related by Imaam Ibn ‘Abdil-Barr in At-Tamheed (23:1).
This refers to the correct creed, methodology and righteous deeds. Another point of benefit is that the Muslim should be aware that the principles of many of these sects are still alive and propagated by certain individuals and/or groups, and accordingly the believer must be cautious
And what shows the danger of extremism and deviation from the truth and staying away from what Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah is upon, is the statement of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) from the Hadith of Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him):
إنَّ أخوفَ ما أخاف عليكم رجل قرأ القرآن،
حتى إذا رُئيت بهجته عليه وكان ردءاً للإسلام،
انسلخ منه ونبذه وراء ظهره، وسعى على جاره بالسيف ورماه بالشرك،
قلت: يا نبيَّ الله! أيُّهما أولى بالشرك: الرامي أو المرمي؟ قال: بل الراميIndeed what I fear most for you is that a man reads the Qur’an until magnificence is seen upon him and he is a support for Islam and it is withdrawn from him and he throws it behind his back and strives against his neighbor with the sword and he accusing him of shirk. I said O’ Prophet of Allah, which one is more worthy of (the accusation of) shirk, the accuser or the accused? He said: The accuser . [Collected by Imam Al-Bukhari in his Taarikh and Abu Ya’ala and Ibn Hibban and Al-Bazaar. See Sahih Al-Albani 3201]
The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) said:
ومَن خرج على أمَّتي يضرب برَّها وفاجرَها، ولا يتحاش من مؤمنها،
ولا يفي لذي عهد عهدَه،فليس منِّي ولستُ منه“Whoever rebels against my Ummah and fights the righteous and unrighteous of them, does not avoid its believers and does not fulfill his obligation to whom he has a contract, then they are not from me and I am not from them . [Muslim 1848]
Ibn Al-Qayyim said,
نهيُ النبيِّ عن قتال الأمراء والخروج على الأئمة وإن ظلموا أو جاروا ما أقاموا الصلاة، سدًّا لذريعة الفسادِ العظيم والشرِّ الكثير بقتالهم كما هو الواقع، فإنّه حصل بسبب قتالهم والخروج عليهم أضعافُ أضعافِ ما هم عليه، والأمّة في
بقايا تلك الشرور إلى الآن
"The Prophet forbidden taking arms against the rulers and revolting against them even if they were unjust as long as long as they established prayers. He said this in order to prevent great corruption and evil that could emanate from taking arms against them.
The reality has shown that taking arms and revolting against them had brought harm and evil that that was much greater than their corruption."
While speaking about undesirability of forbidding vices if that could lead to a greater vice he said,
ومن تأمّل ما جرى على الإسلام في الفِتن الكبار والصِّغار رآها مِن إضاعةِ هذا الأصلِ وهو إنكار المنكر إذا كان يترتّب عليه ما هو أنكرُ منه، ومِن عدم الصبر على المنكَر،
فيُطلَب إزالتُه، فيتولّدُ منه ما هو أكبر منه
"Like revolting against kings and rulers, for this is the foundation of all evils and calamities. If one reflects over what happened to Islaam during minor and major crises one will realize that it caused by the negligence of this very principle."
إنا لا ننتصر على عدوّنا بعددٍ ولا عدة، وإنما ننتصر بطاعتنا لله ومعصيتهم له، فإن عصينا الله فقد استوينا وإياهم في
المعصية، وكان لهم الفضل علينا
المعصية، وكان لهم الفضل علينا
“We do not defeat our enemy through our great numbers and or sophisticated ammunitions, we defeat them through our obedience to Allaah and our enemies’ disobedience to Him. But when we disobey Allaah, we become like them in sins and they will then defeat us.”