Fatwas:Recite surah-Al-fatiha while praying behind imam

Discussion in 'Fatwas and Questions/Answers' started by tulipflower777, Jan 10, 2008.

  1. tulipflower777
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    Fatwa and Question/Answers

    Category
    Jurisprudence and Rulings (Fiqh)

    Title
    I wanted to ask if we've to recite surah-al-fatiha while praying behind imam or not, like in zuhr and asar the imam recites the surah silently so are we also to recite it and in magrib and esha prayers are we to recite surah-e-fatiha in 3rd and 4th rakah

    Question
    1) Firstly i wanted to ask if we've to recite surah-Al-fatiha while praying behind imam or not, like in zuhr and asar the imam recites the surah silently so are we also to recite it and in magrib and esha prayers are we to recite surah-e-fatiha in 3rd and 4th rakah (can u please explain this regardin different maslaks(sects/ shafi ,hanfi etc) )

    2) I've recently started to practice islam more the problem i m facing is that i've given up listenin to songs and every1 in my house listens to songs and they keep watchin programs and songs on tv in loud voice and whenever i go with them in car somewhr they just wont stop listenin to songs and i now ALHAMDULILLAH dont listen to songs anymore but what am i suppose to do in such condition ?


    Answer
    In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

    Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatoh

    1.
    Allah Ta’ala states in the Holy Quran:

    “When the Quran is recited, then listen attentively to it and remain silent so that mercy be shown to you.” [Surah I’raaf, Ayah 204]

    According to Imam Abu Hanifah Rehmatullah alayh, the Muqatadi (person following the Imam in salah) must neither recite Surah Fatiha nor any other Surah. The above verse regarding listening attentively and remaining silent applies to the person performing salah as well as to others.

    Muslim (Vol.1, Pg.174) reports an authentic Hadith in which Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “Remain silent when the Imam is reading.” Not only did Imam Muslim Rehmatullah alayh report this Hadith, but he specifically mentioned that it is authentic; the general context will include those salaahs in which the recitation is audible as well as those in which it is silent.

    According to Imam Ahmad (Rehmatullah alayh) it is not wajib (compulsory) to recite neither Surah Fatiha nor any other Surah in salah while following an Imam.

    According to the old ruling of Imam Shafi’ee (Rehmatullah alayh), it will be waajib for a person to recite form the Quran behind the Imam in such a salah wherein the recitation is silent (sirri). However, in the audible salaahs (jahri), recitation will not be wajib. According to his revised opinion, it will be wajib to recite in both types of salaah (jahri and sirri).

    Imam Malik (Rehmatullah alayh) and Imam Ahamad (Rehmatullah alayh) maintain that recitation of the muqtadi is not fardh, but in certain situations, it will be optional.

    When the rewards for salah are distributed on the Day of Judgment, they will not be asked whether those who did not perform salah according to their opinion should enter Jannah or not.

    [REFERENCE: Anwaarul Bayaan/ Illuminating Discourses on the Noble Quran p.g 101-103, vol. 4]


    The following deals with this issue in details:

    The Hanafi school of thought:

    In the opinion of Imam Abu Hanifa Rehmatullah alayh, Abu Yusuf Rehmatullah alayh, and Imam Muhammad Rehmatullah alayh, under all circumstances—be it jehri salaah or sirri salaah, and whether the muqtadi (follower) is listening to the Imam’s qirat (recitation) or not—it is not jaiz (not permissible) for the muqtadi to recite Surah Fatiha behind the Imam; in fact it is makrooh tehreemi.

    Sahib Hidayah mentions that Imam Muhammad relates it is ‘good’ for the muqtadi to read Surah Fatiha in silent prayers (sirri salaah). However, Durr Mukhtaar refutes this report as follows:

    “Qirat should not be recited by the Muqtadi at all. There is unanimous agreement (bil-ittifaaq) that one must not recite Surah Fatiha in silent prayers (sirri salaah). The report which has been attributed to Imam Muhammad Rehmatullah alayh is weak (dha’eef). Ibn Humaam describes in detail: it is makrooh tehreemi for the muqtadi to recite qirat. However, according to the most authentic view, salaah will be correct.”

    Durr Bihaar relates from the Mabsoot of khawaahar-zada that the salaah will become faasid, and the Muqtadi who recites qirat will become faasiq (sinful). Numerous Sahaabah kiraam have related it as ‘fasaad’, due to which greater caution lays in it being unlawful (i.e. in ‘adam-e-jawaaz). Therefore, when the Imam recites qirat loudly, then the Muqtadi (followers) should listen; and when the Imam recites qirat silently, then the Muqtadi should not speak. The proof of this is stated in a Hadith:

    Hadrat Abu Hurayrah Radiyallahu anhu reports that we would recite qirat behind the Imam; thereafter, an Ayat was revealed “When the Quran is recited, listen to it and remain silent.”

    Allamah Shaami writes in his haashiya (marginal notes):

    - Sahib Durr Mukhtaar wrote “fis-sirriyyah” from which it is automatically understood that in loud prayers (jehri salaah) qirat is prohibited (mamnoo’).

    - And ‘bil-ittifaaq’ refers to the agreement of Aimma-thalaatha (the three Imams).

    - And the report attributed towards Imam Muhmmad Rehmatullah alayh means that it is istihbaab to read Surah Fatiha in silent salah as a precautionary measure (ehtiyaatan).

    - And the result of Allamah Ibn Humam’s Rehmatullah alayh contradiction was that Imam Muhammad says in Kitaabul aathaar that we do not deem qirat permissible behind an Imam in any salaah at all, whether it is jehri (loud) salah, or sirri (silent) salaah. And to say there is caution (ehtiyaat) in it is not worthy, for caution (ehtiyaat) is in not reiciting qirat, because that is acting upon the stronger of the two daleel (proofs). Also, numerous Sahabah kiraam have related that salah becomes faasid by reciting qirat, therefore it is unlawful (which holds the stronger view). [Shaami, p.402, v.1]


    The Maliki school of thought

    According to Imam Malik Rehmatullah alayh, it is also makrooh for the muqtadi to recite Surah Fatiha in jehri salaah (loud prayers)—whether or not the muqtadi is listening to the Imam’s qirat. And it is mustahab (desirable) to read Surah Fatiha in sirri salaah (silent prayers). It is stated in Kitaabul Fiqh ‘alal mazaahib al-arba’ah:

    “Maliki say that it is makrooh for the muqtadi to recite qirat in jehri salaah even if one is not listening to the Imam’s qirat or if the Imam has paused/silenced.” [vol.1, p.254]

    It is stated in Sharah Sagheer of Allamah Dardeer that:

    “The fourth fardh of salah for the Imam and individual is to recite Surah Fatiha, but not for the muqtadi because the Imam undertakes the responsibility of reciting Fatiha on behalf of the muqtadi.”

    “Silent qirat behind an Imam in a sirri salah (silent prayer) is Mustahab (desirable), and also in the last rakat of Magrib, and in the last two rakats of Isha.”


    The Shaf’iee school of thought:

    Imam Shafi’s former opinion was that Surah Fatiha is not wajib upon the muqtadi in jehri namaz. Nevertheless, during the last stages of his life, two years before his death whilst in Egypt, Imam Shafi told his new opinion that it is wajib upon the muqtadi to recite Surah Fatiha in a jehri salaah. And according to the Shawaafi’, fatwa is upon this new opinion. As for sirri namaaz (without any contradictory opinions) it is wajib upon the muqtadi to recite Surah Fatiha. It is written in Muhazzab:

    “Is it wajib upon the Muqtadi to recite Fatiha? In this series, it will be observed that…

    § If it is sirri salaah, then Fatiha is wajib

    § If it is jehri salaah then there are two opinions:

    § Imam Shafi has said in Kitaablul-Umm and Buwaytee that it is wajib

    § And Imam Shafi’s old opinion is that the muqtadi should not recite qirat. Imam Nawwi says that we have mentioned earlier that our mazhab is that “Fatiha is wajib upon the muqtadi in all rakaats of both sirri (silent) and jehri (loud) salaah; and this is the correct mazhab in our opinion.”


    The Hanbali school of thought:

    In the opinion of Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, if the muqtadi is listening to the Imam’s qirat in jehri salaah, then it is not jaiz to read Fatiha. And if the muqtadi is so far that the Imam’s recitation cannot be heard, then it is jaiz (permissible) to recite Fatiha. Furthermore, it is mustahab (desirable) to recite Fatiha in sirri salaah and between the Imam’s silent-pauses in jehri salaah. It is written in Mukhtasar al-kharqi:

    “When the Muqtadi is listening to the Imam’s qirat, then he should not read Surah Fatiha or any other Surat; whereas, to recite in between the Imam’s silent-pauses and in sirri salaah (silent prayers) is Mustahab (desirable). Hence, if the Muqtadi did not recite Fatiha, his salaah is complete because ‘for whosoever is an Imam; the Imam’s qirat is also his qirat’. And if the Muqtadi is not listening to the qirat due to distance, then one should recite Surah Fatiha.”


    [REFERENCE: Adalla-e-Kaamila yani ghair muqallidoun kai 10 sawaalaat aur unkai tehqeeqi jawaabaat, by Shaikul-Hind Hadrat Moulana Mehmud Hasan Sahib Deobandi, P.g 60-64]

    Ahadith/ Narrations:

    Regarding this issue, two types of Hadith have been mentioned.

    <!--[if !supportLists]-->1. Those Hadith from which we understand that a muqtadi can recite Fatiha. <!--[endif]-->

    <!--[if !supportLists]-->2. Those Hadith from which we understand that a muqtadi should not recite Fatiha, instead he should remain silent.<!--[endif]-->


    The Statements of the Sahaabah Radiayallah anhum About Not Reciting Behind the Imam

    When Hadhrat Ata bin Yasaar (A.R) enquired from Hadrat Zaid bin Thaabit (Radiyallahu anhu) concerning reciting behind the Imam, he replied, “There is no recitation whatsoever behind the Imam.” [Muslim, vol. 1, pg. 410]

    Hadrat Jabir Radiyallahu anhu mentioned, “There is no salaah for him who does not recite Surah Fatiha in salaah, except for the one who performs salaah behind an Imam (he will not even recite Surah Fatiha when following the Imam)” [Tirmidhi]. Imam Tirmidhi (Rehmatullah alayh) says that this Hadith is Hasan and that from this Hadith Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Rehmatullah alayh) deduced that the salah of the person who does not recite Surah Fatiha will not be valid when he performs salah individually.

    Imam Tahaawi (Rehmatullah alayh) has narrated from Hadrat Ali Radiyallahu anhu that the person who recites the Quran while following the Imam is not a follower of the natural Deen.

    Hadrat Abdullah bin Mas’ood (Radiyallahu anhu) is reported to have said, “Remain silent for the recitation of the Quran because salaah is an occupation and the Imam will suffice for you.”

    Hadrat Abdullah bin Mas’ood (Radiyallahu anhu) is also reported to have said, “If only the mouth of that person who recites while behind the Imam is filled with soil.”

    Abu Jamra (A.R) asked Hadrat Abdullah bin Abbas (Radiyallahu anhu) whether he should recite the Quran while behind the Imam. He replied in the negative.

    Hadrat Abdullah bin Umar (Radiyallahu anhu) never recited Quran behind the Imam and when it was asked of him whether one should recite, he replied, “When any of you perform salaah behind an Imam, then the recitation of the Imam will suffice for him as well.”

    These Hadith together with the Quranic verse in Surah I’raaf “When the Quran is recited, then listen attentively to it and remain silent so that mercy be shown to you” establish the rule that the Muqtadi should listen to the Imam’s qirat and keep silent.

    [REFERENCE: Anwaarul Bayaan/ Illuminating Discourses on the Noble Quran p.g 101-103, vol. 4]

    It is compulsory for a muqallid (adherent of a particular madhab) to follow the ruling of his madhab. He cannot do as he likes.


    2.
    Imran ibn Husayn said, “The Prohet Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, ‘Some people of this Ummah will be swallowed up by the earth, some will be transformed into animals, and some will be bombarded with stones.’ One of the Muslims asked, ‘When will that be, O Messenger of Allah?’ He said, ‘When singers and musical instruments will become popular, and much wine will be drunk’” (Tirmidhi). [The Signs Before the Day of Judgement, by Ibn Kathir]

    Alhamdulillah, you have taken a great step towards Deen by ceasing the habit of listening to music. It has been mentioned in a Hadith: “Songs make hypocrisy grow in the heart just as water makes crops grow” (Bayhaqi, Shu’ab al-iman)

    "Listening to [instrumental] music is clearly prohibited in Islam.

    Imam Tirmidhi has narrated on the authority of ‘Ali Radiyallhu anhu that he Messenger of Allah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “When my nation adopts fifteen traits, trials will descend upon them—among these traits are taking to songstresses and musical instruments” (Qurtubi, al-Jami’ li ahkam al-Quran 14:51-53)

    In a Hadith, the Messenger of Allah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, “There will be people in my nation who will seek to make lawful fornication, silk, intoxicants, and musical instruments”. (Bukhari)

    As for listening to musical instruments… it is prohibited and an act of disobedience…If someone happens to hear it accidentally, then there is no sin on him. He must, however, do all he can to avoid it, since it has been narrated that the Messenger of Allah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam inserted his fingers into his ears when he heard it” (Al-Durr al-mukhtar 5:223)

    [Reference: Provisions for the Seekers, translated by Abdur Rahmaan ibn Yusuf, pg. 35-36; Zaadut-taalibeen]

    Your sacrifice and the difficulty/ hardships you undergo for abstaining from this sin is great and a means of immense reward. However, the fact that you are surrounded by a musical environment is highly dangerous. Human beings are easily influenced by their company. Therefore, it is important for you to advise your family towards Deen. Make dua continuously for a change among them and try to bring their focus upon Islam through religious advice and wisdom. Most importantly, don’t let them influence you; you must influence them about music. Avoid all means to travel in such cars or go to such places where music is blasting as much as possible. If unable to do so, keep a CD player with you and listen to Quran or Islamic nasheeds on headphones. May Allah keep you steadfast upon Deen and guide everyone upon the straight path. Ameen


    And Allah knows best

    Mufti Ebrahim Desai
    Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah


    :wasalam:
  2. Nazihah
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    Nazihah Be A Stranger

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    Waalaikumsalam Sister,

    Jazakallahu khair for this beneficial post. This is what I needed.

    Thanx. :)
  3. uddim004
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    uddim004 Junior Member

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    thank you for this post sister needed this for some time. it would be good if there wasn't different opinions , but since i am from hanifi madhab i guess i shouldn't recite al-fatiha in congregation.
  4. Astrugglingsoul
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    Astrugglingsoul Junior Member

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    :wasalam: sister
    Jazakallah Khayr for this beneficial thread!!
    i am having the same problem about this music issue. i also wanted to start a thread about it but alhamdulillah that will be no longer necessary :)
  5. Hard Rock Moslem
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    Hard Rock Moslem I'm your brother

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    Jazakallah khair.. very beneficial.
  6. bari
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    bari Junior Member

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    :salam2:
    Jazak Allah khairan for so much beneficial knowledge.
  7. adanshai
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    adanshai Junior Member

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    http://www.islamqa.com/en/ref/10995


    [Reciting al-Faatihah is one of the essential parts of the prayer, and is to be recited in each rak’ah both by the imaam and by those who are being led by him, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There is no prayer for the one who does not recite the Opening of the Book [i.e., al-Faatihah].” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 714). With regard to one who is following an imaam reciting al-Faatihah behind the imaam in a prayer where Qur’aan is to be recited out loud, there are two scholarly opinions.

    The first opinion is that it is obligatory, the evidence for that being the general meaning of the hadeeth of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): “There is no prayer for the one who does not recite the Opening of the Book [i.e., al-Faatihah].” And because when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught the one who had not prayed properly, he told him to recite al-Faatihah.

    It was narrated in a saheeh report that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite it in every rak’ah. Al-Haafiz ibn Hajar said in Fath al-Baari: “It was proven that permission was given to the one who is praying behind an imaam to recite al-Faatihah in prayers in which Qur’aan is to be recited out loud, without any exceptions. That is what was narrated by al-Bukhaari in Juz’ al-Qiraa’ah, and by al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibbaan and others, from Makhool from Mahmood ibn al-Rabee’ from ‘Ubaadah, that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stumbled in his recitation in Fajr, and when he finished he said, “Perhaps you recite behind your imaam?” They said, “Yes,” He said, “Do not do that, except for the Opening of the Book (al-Faaithah), for there is no prayer for the one who does not recite it.”

    The second opinion is that the recitation of the imaam is also the recitation of the one who is praying behind him. The evidence for that is the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

    “So, when the Qur’aan is recited, listen to it, and be silent that you may receive mercy” [al-A’raaf 7:204]

    Ibn Hajar said: “Those who say that (the one who is praying behind an imaam) does not have to recite it in prayers where Qur’aan is to be recited out loud, such as the Maalikis, quote as evidence the hadeeth, ‘When he recites then listen attentively.’ This is a saheeh hadeeth which was narrated by Muslim from Abu Moosa al-‘Ash’ari.”

    Those who say that it is obligatory say that it should be recited after the imaam has finished reciting al-Faatihah and before he starts to recite another soorah, or that it should be recited when the imam pauses. Ibn Hajar said: “He should listen when the imam is reciting, and recite it when he is silent.”

    Shaykh Ibn Baaz said, “What is meant by when the imam pauses is when he pauses during al-Faatihah or after reciting it, or in the soorah that he recites after it. If the imam does not pause, then the one who is praying behind him has to recite al-Faatihah even if the imam is reciting, according to the more correct of the two scholarly opinions.” (See Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, vol. 11, p. 221)

    The Standing Committee was asked a similar question and replied as follows:

    The correct scholarly opinion is that it is obligatory to recite al-Faatihah when praying alone and it is obligatory upon the imam and those whom he is leading both in prayers where Qur’aan is to be recited out loud and when it is to be recited silently, because of the soundness and specific nature of the texts which indicate that. The aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

    “So, when the Qur’aan is recited, listen to it, and be silent that you may receive mercy”

    [al-A’raaf 7:204] is general in meaning. The hadeeth, “When the Qur’aan is recited then listen attentively” is general and applies both to al-Faatihah and other soorahs. These two texts are general in meaning, and the following hadeeth refer to an exception to that rule:

    “There is no prayer for the one who does not recite the Opening of the Book.” Thus we may reconcile all the proven evidence. The hadeeth “The recitation of the imaam is the recitation of the one who is praying behind him” is da’eef (weak). It is not correct to say that the Ameen of the congregation to the imaam’s recitation of al-Faatihah takes the place of their own recitation. The differences of opinion among the scholars concerning this matter should not be taken as a means to hate one another, and to divide and turn our backs on one another. Rather you have to study the matter in more detail and find out more. If one of you is following a scholar who says that the one who is praying behind an imam has to recite al-Faatihah during prayers in which Qur’aan is to be recited out loud, and others are following a scholar who says that they must be silent and listen to the imam in prayers where Qur’aan is to be recited out loud, and that the imam’s recitation of al-Faatihah is sufficient, there is nothing wrong with that. There is no need for one group to denounce the other, or to hate one another because of that.

    They have to be open-minded about differences of opinion among the scholars, and about the reasons for that, and ask Allaah to guide them in matters concerning which there are differences of opinion as to what is correct, for He is the All-Hearing, Ever-Responsive. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad.


    Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid
  8. strive-may-i
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    strive-may-i Junior Member

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    :salam2:
    1.
    Your compilation on topic 1 from 4 Madhabs is worthwhile indeed. There definitely are reasons in suggestion about sticking to one of 4 Madhabs. The matter needs real deep probing before one jumps to conclusion. Am told, sticking to one of the Madhabs is better, to avoid risk of getting pulled to wrong practices.

    2. Music
    The problem with music is that most become enslaved to it, addicted to it. After a stage only Music becomes the lifeline, only music works and nothing else. A fellow human expressing his happiness, pain anguish or anger ,in plain words will not be heard. It takes most away from reality. You will find a tram/ tube/bus full of people travelling (even homes), but not speaking to each other, but listening to the sound from gadgets, away from reality, lost and lost in one's own world. Most listen to music to be lost away from reality, is it not?

    Something which is music to one, is noise to another. Most listen to words and sound that feels music to ones ears, wants to hear a tune that matches one's frequency, even if it were far away from reality. Aware of it, there are enough musicians out there who beat and sing a tune, in tune with what audience wants to hear. And the audience drugged, and away from reality, then calls the one who created the music as "God". Yes we all have heard such phrases have we not, And should one call a mere mortal as God, the limit has been crossed, and ... well I stop here!! because that's the most grave act one could commit. May Almighty protect us from this trap!!!

    Music like many art is a fleeting experience, the mind craves for more creative outlets, never satisfied wanting some more. While talking,listening, communicating is a necessity, when not controlled, we do less and start to succumb to the lure...... wasting time money, effort and energy. we are here to achieve, for the hereafter with good beneficial deeds.

    These are I think the flaw, that people of reason, caution about music addiction.

    Its not easy but it definitely is possible. Ask the kids who stopped watching cartoons as they grew up into teens. The gals who stopped treating dolls as best friend and started seeking human friends. Ask the teen boys who stopped playing computer games, and stepped out to play healthy sports. Yes we all can identify the kid, the gal, the teen who grew out of these entertainment avenues for a more healthy balanced life. I can tell you there are more engaging activities than being lost in some one else creativity and inturn getting lost and out of touch with the purpose of our own being here on earth, in this journey.

    Almightys creation is full of sound and music, which is pure bliss to the senses. Its really sad, that we humans are unwittingly stepping away from reality.


    What do we do about music?
    But don't loose your cool, tho your family fails to see the merit in your being not addicted to it. You will have to bear with it for some time. Those are mere distractions like the flashing headlamp from a vehicle in highway. you will be able to focus your mind, and control your senses from the lure. There is so much out there to know, understand, realize , reflect and imbibe. trying to focus energy and mind in rewarding path, actually helps. So try it and remember -Practice, patience and right people... May you also find Muslimahs, who are serious about their Imaan

    There are many who swear, that they dont need music to make their day happy. There is much greater value in getting joy from one's work, Ibaadah, and Good Deeds.

    May Almight give us the resolve to be steadfast.... Ameen
  9. adanshai
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    adanshai Junior Member

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    What about the "Madhub of The Holy Prophet", all of the great Imams only followed the Sunnah of the Prophet (Peace and Blessing be upon him), Our Prophet did many things sometimes in a different way all are from the sunnah, I if someone wants to sticks to one sunnah it is like saying I would only eat this fruit, and miss the flavours of others fruits ?, If the Sunnah is correct and proven then why stick to only one way?
  10. sachin4islam
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    sachin4islam Junior Member

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    Assalamu Alaikum:

    I recite Surah-Fatiha behind Imam,but find it more beneficial just listening to Imam. Every verse from Fatiha which Imam recites touches heart and opens it. While reciting behind Imam the focus simply remains on recitation chasing the Imam.

    Regards.

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