Serious Hadith explains Quran :

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  1. Pure-heart
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    Pure-heart Junior Member

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    Tafseer

    The preservation of the Qur’an was not restricted to protecting its wording from change. Were that the case, its meanings could be manipulated according to human desires, while maintaining its wording.

    However, Allah also protected its essential meanings from change by entrusting the explanation of the meanings of Qur’an to the Prophet himself. Allah states the following in the Qur’an regarding its interpretation:

    And I revealed to you the Reminder (Qur’an) in order that you explain to the people what was revealed to them.” (An-Nahl 16:44)

    Therefore, if one is to understand the meanings of Qur’an, he or she must consider what the Prophet said or did regarding it. E.g. in the Qur’an, Allah instructs the believers to offer salah (formal prayers) and pay zakah (obligatory charity) in Surat Al-Baqarah (2), verse 43.

    And be steadfast in prayer; practice regular charity; and bow down your heads with those who bow down (in worship). (Al-Baqarah 2:43)

    However, in order to obey these instructions correctly, one must study the methodology of the Prophet in this regard. Among his many clarifications concerning salah and zakah, he instructed his followers saying “Pray as you saw me pray,” (Al-Bukhari) and he specified that 2.5% of surplus wealth, unused for a year,9 should be given as zakah.

    Also, there are a number of authentic hadiths in which the Prophet gave specific instructions concerning the items and quantities on which zakah was due, as well as the time it is due. Among them is the following narration from `Ali ibn Abi Talib:

    `Ali ibn Abi Taalib quoted Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) as saying: “Whenever you possess 200 dirhams and a year passes on it, 5 dirhams is to be paid on it. You are not liable to pay anything until you possess 20 dinars and a year passes on it, in which case ½ a dinar is due. Whatever exceeds that will be counted likewise9. And no zakah is payable on wealth until a year passes on it.” (Abu Dawud)
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  2. mezeren
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    Duty of The Messenger in Terms of Making Clear

    The Messenger Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) was sent to ‘tabyin’ the Qur’an. Tabyin means, ‘making clear’. [1]

    In many verses it is stated that the Book is clear. [2] One verse is:

    الۤرٰ تِلْكَ اٰيَاتُ الْكِتَابِ الْمُب۪ينِ

    “Alif, Lam, Ra. These are the verses of the clear Book.” (Joseph 12:1)

    Allah the Almighty takes on the responsibility of making the verses clear. [3] That means He makes the explanations. Below is a verse:

    لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِه۪ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِه۪ اِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْاٰنَهُ فَاِذَا قَرَاْنَاهُ فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْاٰنَهُ ثُمَّ اِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ

    “Move not your tongue to haste in judging with therein. Surely upon Us is its collection and making Qur’an (subsets) out of it. So when We collect it, then follow its Qur’an (semantic subset). Indeed upon Us is making it clear. ” (Al-Qiyamah/The Rising 75:16-19)

    Allah the Almighty decrees in detail why He undertakes the task of explanation:

    الَر كِتَابٌ أُحْكِمَتْ آيَاتُهُ ثُمَّ فُصِّلَتْ مِن لَّدُنْ حَكِيمٍ خَبِيرٍ أَلاَّ تَعْبُدُواْ إِلاَّ اللّهَ إِنَّنِي لَكُم مِّنْهُ نَذِيرٌ وَبَشِيرٌ

    “Alif, Lam, Ra. This is a book, verses of which are made decisive, then elaborated by the One who judges rightly and is All-Aware; so that, you shall not serve any other than Allah. Indeed, I am the one who warns you with that Book and gives glad tidings to you from it.” (Hud 11:1-2)

    Since the verses of book are made decisive and then elaborated by Allah to avoid us from serving any other, then the Book needs no elaboration. What we must do is spending effort on finding out the explanation made by Allah, in a systematic way. We are asked for the message of the Book, not messages of others. Allah the Almighty decrees:

    الۤمۤصۤ كِتَابٌ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ فَلاَ يَكُن فِي صَدْرِكَ حَرَجٌ مِّنْهُ لِتُنذِرَ بِهِ وَذِكْرَى لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ اِتَّبِعُوا مَاۤ اُنْزِلَ اِلَيْكُمْ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا مِنْ دُونِه۪ۤ اَوْلِيَاۤءَ قَل۪يلًا مَا تَذَكَّرُونَ

    “Alif, Lam, Meem, Saad. [This is] a Book revealed to you, [O Muhammad] – so let there not be in your breast distress therefrom – that you may warn thereby and that the believers make use of their knowledge. Follow what has been revealed to you from your Lord and do not follow any other masters than Him. How little you make use of this knowledge!” (Al-A’raf/The Elevated Place7:1-3)

    That means, the role of prophets and messengers while performing “tabyin: to make clear/to explain” is to announce what is in the Book. Allah the Almighty decrees:

    وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ إِلاَّ رِجَالاً نُّوحِي إِلَيْهِمْ فَاسْأَلُواْ أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالزُّبُرِ وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

    “We did not send before you except men whom We revealed. So ask the people of knowledge (dhikr), if you do not know. We sent them (those messengers) with clear evidences and books. And We revealed to you this Qur’an (dhikr) that you clarify to the people what was sent down to them, and that they give thought to it.” (An-Nahl/ The Bee 16:43-44)

    Both verses contain the word ‘dhikr’. The ‘dhikr’ that was sent down to the Messenger of Allah, which is Qur’an, confirms the previous books. [4] This is emphasized in the two verses above. Thus, when People of the Book compare the Book in hand to the Qur’an, they will surely understand that Qur’an is the Book of Allah. Indeed, there had been those who admitted it and done what is necessary, as well as those who ignored it. [5] Here, clarification of the Messenger with the Qur’an means that the Qur’an lays bare what was in the previous books. It is already stated that ‘tabyin’ of the Messenger of Allah would be with the Qur’an. The following verses shed light on this issue:

    وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا قَبْلَكَ إِلاَّ رِجَالاً نُّوحِي إِلَيْهِمْ فَاسْأَلُواْ أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُون وَمَا جَعَلْنَاهُمْ جَسَدًا لَّا يَأْكُلُونَ الطَّعَامَ وَمَا كَانُوا خَالِدِينَ ثُمَّ صَدَقْنَاهُمُ الْوَعْدَ فَأَنجَيْنَاهُمْ وَمَن نَّشَاء وَأَهْلَكْنَا الْمُسْرِفِينَ لَقَدْ أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكُمْ كِتَابًا فِيهِ ذِكْرُكُمْ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ

    “We did not send before you except men, whom We revealed. Ask the people of knowledge, if you do not know. We did not make them (those messengers) bodies that ate no food, nor were they immortal. Then We fulfilled for them the promise; and We saved them and whom We chose to save, and destroyed those exceeding the bounds. We have sent down to you a Book in which there is your message (dhikr). Will you not use your reason?” (Al-Anbiya/The Prophets 21:7-10)

    In the following verses of the chapter, People of the Book are asked to check their Book against the Qur’an, and for further:

    أَمِ اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِهِ آلِهَةً قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ هَذَا ذِكْرُ مَن مَّعِيَ وَذِكْرُ مَن قَبْلِي بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ الْحَقَّ فَهُم مُّعْرِضُونَ وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ

    “Or have they taken, besides Him, other gods? Say, “Bring forth your proof. This is the Book (dhikr) of those with me, and this is the Book (dhikr) of those before me.” But most of them do not know the Truth, so they turn away. We did not send a messenger before you without revealing him that: “There is no god but I, so worship Me.”” (Al-Anbiya/The Prophets 21:24-25)

    This cross-check is suggested to the Messenger of Allah, too:

    فَاِنْ كُنْتَ ف۪ي شَكٍّ مِمَّاۤ اَنْزَلْنَاۤ اِلَيْكَ فَسْـَٔلِ الَّذ۪ينَ يَقْرَؤُۧنَ الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ لَقَدْ جَاۤءَكَ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّكَ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَر۪ينَ

    “If you are in doubt about what We revealed to you, ask those who read the Book before you. Indeed that (the same) truth has come to you from your Lord, so do not be of those who doubt.” (Jonah 10:94)

    Qur’an is the Arabic form of previous Books. In a verse decreed:

    وَمِنْ قَبْلِه۪ كِتَابُ مُوسٰىۤ اِمَامًا وَرَحْمَةً وَهٰذَا كِتَابٌ مُصَدِّقٌ لِسَانًا عَرَبِيًّا لِيُنْذِرَ الَّذ۪ينَ ظَلَمُوا وَبُشْرٰى لِلْمُحْسِن۪ينَ

    “And before it was the Book of Moses, a model and beneficence. And this is a confirming Book, in the Arabic language, to warn those who do wrong—and glad tidings for those who do beauties.” (Al-Ahqaf/ The Curved Dunes 46:12)

    What is in the Arabic Qur’an also existed in the previous Books. Those who had the Book knew it. Related verses are:

    وَلَقَدْ وَصَّلْنَا لَهُمُ الْقَوْلَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ اَلَّذ۪ينَ اٰتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِه۪ هُمْ بِه۪ يُؤْمِنُونَ وَاِذَا يُتْلٰى عَلَيْهِمْ قَالُوۤا اٰمَنَّا بِه۪ۤ اِنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّنَاۤ اِنَّا كُنَّا مِنْ قَبْلِه۪ مُسْلِم۪ينَ

    “We have conveyed Our Word to them consecutively, so that they may come to their senses. Those to whom We gave the Book before this believe in it [the Quran], too; and, when it is recited to them, they say, “We believe in it. Indeed it is the truth from our Lord. Even before it came, we had submitted ourselves (we were Muslims).” (Al-Qasas/The Stories 28:51-53)

    وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الْأَمِينُ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنذِرِينَ بِلِسَانٍ عَرَبِيٍّ مُّبِينٍ وَإِنَّهُ لَفِي زُبُرِ الْأَوَّلِينَ أَوَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُمْ آيَةً أَن يَعْلَمَهُ عُلَمَاء بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ وَلَوْ نَزَّلْنَاهُ عَلَى بَعْضِ الْأَعْجَمِينَ فَقَرَأَهُ عَلَيْهِم مَّا كَانُوا بِهِ مُؤْمِنِينَ

    “Indeed it is a revelation from the Lord of the Worlds. The trustworthy Spirit has brought it down to your heart in a clear Arabic language, so that you may be of those who warn. And indeed, it is [that Qur’an would be sent down] in the scriptures of former people’s. And has it not been a sign to them (Meccan mushriks) that it is recognized by the scholars of the Children of Israel? And even if We had revealed it to one among the foreigners and he had recited it to them, they would [still] not have been believers in it.” (Ash-Shuara’/The Poets 26:192-199)

    وَيَقُولُ الَّذ۪ينَ كَفَرُوا لَسْتَ مُرْسَلًا قُلْ كَفٰى بِاللّٰهِ شَه۪يدًا بَيْن۪ي وَبَيْنَكُمْ وَمَنْ عِنْدَهُ عِلْمُ الْكِتَابِ

    “Those who ignore to see Allah say, “You are not a messenger.” Say, “Allah and those who have knowledge of the Book suffice as witnesses between me and you.”” (Ar-Ra’ad/ The Thunder 13:43)

    The Messenger of Allah discloses by Qur’an what the People of the Book used to conceal from and used to dispute over the Book. This applies to other prophets, too. [6] Related verses are:

    يَاۤ اَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاۤءَكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ كَث۪يرًا مِمَّا كُنْتُمْ تُخْفُونَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَعْفُوا عَنْ كَث۪يرٍ قَدْ جَاۤءَكُمْ مِنَ اللّٰهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُب۪ينٌ

    “Oh People of the Book, there has come to you Our Messenger making clear to you much of what you used to conceal of the Book; and forgiving much. Now has come unto you light from Allah and a clear Book.” (Al-Ma’ida/The Feast 5:15)

    تَاللّهِ لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَى أُمَمٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُمُ الْيَوْمَ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ وَمَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ إِلاَّ لِتُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

    “By Allah, We sent messengers to communities before you, but Devil made their deeds appear adorned to them. He is their master today too, and for them is a painful chastisement. And We have not revealed to you the Book, [O Muhammad], except for you to make clear to them what they disputed over and as guidance and mercy for a people who believe.” (An-Nahl/The Bee 16:63-64)

    In fact, it is obvious in the verse by whom the disputed thing is made clear. It is stated that the Messenger of Allah is given the Book to make clear to the people what they disputed over. So, the Messenger is going to make the clarification by means of the Book he is given. That means, this clarification, tabyin, is stating something as is, or disclosing it.

    The following verses are significant from the point of view that the clarification of the disputes is by means of the Book:



    إِنَّ هَذَا الْقُرْآنَ يَقُصُّ عَلَى بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَكْثَرَ الَّذِي هُمْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ

    “Indeed, this Qur’an relates to the Children of Israel most of that over which they disagreed.” (An-Naml/The Ant 27:76)

    Since the Book mentions most of the things that the Children of Israel disagreed over, Messenger Muhammad has clarified them by means of this Book:

    كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ فَهَدَى اللّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لِمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ وَاللّهُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاء إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

    “In the beginning all people were a single community. Then God sent the prophets to bring glad tidings and warnings to them. And He sent down with them the Book based on the Truth so that it should judge between the people concerning in which they differ. Those who differed over it were those very people who had been given the Book. It happened – after those clear proofs came to them- because they coveted the rights of one another. Then God, by His leave, guided those who believed the Truth about which they had differed; God admits into His guidance that who prefers the guidance.” (Al-Baqarah/The Cow 2:213)

    According to the verse, Allah has sent books to let prophets judge with them on the subjects that people disagree. Then, clarifying the subjects is achieved by means of the books. Indeed, from the last part of the verse we conclude that it is Allah Who guides those who believe in the truth after the disagreement. This is also by means of the Book. Same issue is emphasized in the following verse:

    وَمَا اخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِيهِ مِن شَيْءٍ فَحُكْمُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ ذَلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبِّي عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ وَإِلَيْهِ أُنِيبُ

    “And in anything over which you disagree – its ruling is to Allah. [Say], “That is Allah, my Lord; upon Him I have relied, and to Him I penitently turn.” (Ash-Shura/The Consultation 42:10)

    In fact, what they disagreed over are also the things in the Book:

    ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللّهَ نَزَّلَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُواْ فِي الْكِتَابِ لَفِي شِقَاقٍ بَعِيدٍ

    “That is so; because Allah has sent down the Book in Truth. And indeed, those who disagreed over the Book are in extreme dissension.” (Al-Baqarah/The Cow 2:176)

    وَلاَ تَكُونُواْ كَالَّذِينَ تَفَرَّقُواْ وَاخْتَلَفُواْ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ وَأُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

    “And do not be like those who separated and disputed after the solid evidences came to them; for them is a great chastisement.” (Al-e-Imran/Family of Imran 3:105)

    People must be clearly informed in the worldly life about the thing they disputed or disagreed, so that they will be held responsible and reckoned for this, in the hereafter. This information is given by the Book. Denial or suspicion of people on resurrection is an instance. Although this truth is ascertained in the Book, some people will deny this and understand the truth in the hereafter. Allah the Almighty decrees:

    وَأَقْسَمُواْ بِاللّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ لاَ يَبْعَثُ اللّهُ مَن يَمُوتُ بَلَى وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا وَلـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ الَّذِي يَخْتَلِفُونَ فِيهِ وَلِيَعْلَمَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ أَنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ كَاذِبِينَ

    “And they swear by Allah with their most solemn oaths, “Allah will not resurrect anyone who dies.” Yes indeed, it is a promise binding on Him, but most people do not know.
    (He will resurrect that) He may make clear to them the reality regarding the matters on which they differ and that the unbelievers may realize that they were liars.”
    (An-Nahl/The Bee 16:38-39)

    The words “tabyin” mentioned in the following verses mean “to disclose what was hidden”:

    إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْتُمُونَ مَا أَنزَلْنَا مِنَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالْهُدَى مِن بَعْدِ مَا بَيَّنَّاهُ لِلنَّاسِ فِي الْكِتَابِ أُولَـئِكَ يَلعَنُهُمُ اللّهُ وَيَلْعَنُهُمُ اللَّاعِنُونَ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ تَابُواْ وَأَصْلَحُواْ وَبَيَّنُواْ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ أَتُوبُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَنَا التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَمَاتُوا وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ أُولَئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ لَعْنَةُ اللّهِ وَالْمَلآئِكَةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا لاَ يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَلاَ هُمْ يُنظَرُونَ وَإِلَـهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ لاَّ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الرَّحْمَنُ الرَّحِيمُ

    “Indeed, those who conceal what We sent down of explanatory evidences and guidance after We made it clear for the people in this Book- those will be cursed by Allah and cursed by those who curse…
    Except for those who repent and correct themselves and make clear [what they concealed]. Those – I will accept their repentance, and I am The Accepter of Repentance, the Merciful.
    Indeed, those who ignore our evidences and die while they ignore – upon them will be the curse of Allah and of the angels and of all the people. They remain eternally under that curse.
    The punishment will not be lightened for them, nor will it be reprieved.
    Your God is one God. There is no god but He, the Endlessly Beneficent, the Merciful.”
    (Al-Baqarah/The Cow 2:159-163)



    يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ كَثِيرًا مِّمَّا كُنتُمْ تُخْفُونَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَعْفُو عَن كَثِيرٍ قَدْ جَاءكُم مِّنَ اللّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ

    “Oh People of the Book, there has come to you Our Messenger making clear to you much of what you used to conceal of the Book, and forgiving much. Now has come unto you light from Allah and a plain Book.” (Al-Ma’ida/The Feast 5:15)

    As seen in the verses tabyin, which is announcing what is in the Book as is, is a duty for everyone. This is stated in the following verse clearly:

    وَإِذَ أَخَذَ اللّهُ مِيثَاقَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ لَتُبَيِّنُنَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ وَلاَ تَكْتُمُونَهُ فَنَبَذُوهُ وَرَاء ظُهُورِهِمْ وَاشْتَرَوْاْ بِهِ ثَمَناً قَلِيلاً فَبِئْسَ مَا يَشْتَرُونَ

    “And [mention, O Muhammad], when Allah took an oath from those who were given the Book, [saying], “You must make it clear to the people and not conceal it. But they threw it away behind their backs and exchanged it for a trivial price. What a miserable exchange they made!” (The Family of Imran 3:187)

    If the content of the Book is not announced as it is, which also means that it is concealed, anyone responsible will be subject to curse of Allah.[12] Concealment must be construed as ‘distorting the books by disconnecting the relations among verses’; not as ‘removing some of the verses from books’.[13]

    To be able to clarify everything with the book of Allah, messengers must be delivering the message in the language of that community. Related verse is:

    وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ بِلِسَانِ قَوْمِهِ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَهُمْ فَيُضِلُّ اللّهُ مَن يَشَاء وَيَهْدِي مَن يَشَاء وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

    “We have not sent any messenger except in the language of his people to make things clear for them, and henceforth Allah leads astray who goes for it, and guides who goes for it. He is The Strong, and He judges rightly.” (Abraham 14:4)

    And it is natural that the messengers were sent in the language of their own society. Related verses are:

    فَإِنَّمَا يَسَّرْنَاهُ بِلِسَانِكَ لِتُبَشِّرَ بِهِ الْمُتَّقِينَ وَتُنذِرَ بِهِ قَوْمًا لُّدًّا

    “Indeed, We made it easy in your language, in order to deliver glad tidings to those protecting themselves, and to warn with it a hostile people.” (Mary 19:97)

    فَإِنَّمَا يَسَّرْنَاهُ بِلِسَانِكَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ

    “Indeed, We made it easy in your language, so that they may come to their senses.” (Dukhan 44:58)

    يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ عَلَى فَتْرَةٍ مِّنَ الرُّسُلِ أَن تَقُولُواْ مَا جَاءنَا مِن بَشِيرٍ وَلاَ نَذِيرٍ فَقَدْ جَاءكُم بَشِيرٌ وَنَذِيرٌ وَاللّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

    “Oh People of the Book! There has come to you Our Messenger making (things) clear o you, after a break in Messengers, lest you say: “There came unto us no bringer of glad tidings or bringer of warnings.” But now has come unto you a bringer of glad tidings and warnings. And Allah sets measures for all things.” (Al-Ma’ida/The Feast 5:19)

    The verse informs that a messenger making things clear to them, and bringing glad tidings and warnings, has come to the people in order to prevent them from saying “nobody has come to us to bring glad tidings or warnings”. Since the Messenger of God brings the glad tidings and the warnings that are in the Book, the clarifications mentioned in the verse cannot be anything, but announcement of the revelation. When we consider and relate also the following verse to the others, we will understand what the Messenger of God brought and clarified:

    يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ كَثِيرًا مِّمَّا كُنتُمْ تُخْفُونَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَعْفُو عَن كَثِيرٍ قَدْ جَاءكُم مِّنَ اللّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ

    “Oh People of the Book, there has come to you Our Messenger making clear to you much of what you used to conceal of the Book, and forgiving much. Now has come unto you light from Allah and a plain Book.” (Al-Ma’ida/The Feast 5:15)

    In Qur’an, the word ‘tafseel’ – to elaborate – is used to state that Allah is the One Who elaborated Qur’an, thus it is a book, whose every detail is given by Allah.[14]

    If many verses inform that this is a book elaborated by Allah, then nobody else holds the duty or authorization to explain it. Our duty is trying to determine the elaborations made by Allah, which may only be possible by following the method introduced by Him.

    T/N: See: Method to Understand Qur’an: http://www.islamandquran.org/?p=1145

    [1] B-y-n”, means ‘to be clear’, and ‘to make clear’. Its verbal noun is “bayan” and “tibyan”. Its transitive verbal noun, which means ‘to make clear’, is “tabyin” and “tibyan”. al-Mu’jam al-‘Arabi al-Asasi, The Commission, Art. b-y-n.

    [2] The Stones 15:1; The Poets 26:2; The Stories 28:2; Ya-Sin 36:69; The Gold Adornments 43:2; Dukhan 44:2.

    [3] The Cow 2:118; Family of Imran 3:118; The Iron 57:17.

    [4] The Cow 2:41, 89, 91, 97, 101; Family of Imran 3:3, 81; The Cattle 6:92; Jonah 10:37; Joseph 12/111; The Curved Dunes 46:12.

    [5] The Cow 2:89; The Feast 5:82, … .; The Stories 28:51, …

    [6] The Gold Adornments 43:63.

    [7] The Bee 16:92.

    [8] Family of Imran 3:55; The Pilgrimage 22:69; The Cow 2:113; The Bee 16:124; The Companies 39:46.

    [9] The Feast 5:48; The Cattle 6:164.

    [10] Jonah 10:93; The Kneeling 45:17.

    [11] The Prostration 32:25.

    [12] Family of Imran 3:187.

    [13] The Cow 2:75; Family of Imran 3:7; The Women 4:46; The Feast 5:13, 41.

    [14] The Cattle 6:55, 97, 98, 114, 126; The Elevated Place 7:32, 52, 174; Repentance 9:11; Jonah 10:5, 24, 37; Hud 11:1; Joseph 12:111; The Thunder 13:2; The Romans 30:28; Elaborated 41:3.



    Dr. Fatih ORUM
  3. Pure-heart
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    The first of the criticisms which are now commonly being directed against the Hadith is that they were not collected in the time of the Prophet or of the Khulafa' al-Rashidun, and that during the period between the utterance or occurrence of their contents and their being recorded in writing there was every chance of their being materially altered. Some have even gone so far as to say that they were not recorded because they were unreliable. That in the earlier stages they were not fully recorded in writing, is true, though it is not true that they were not recorded at all even as regards the Prophet's lifetime, for there is good evidence to show that `Abdullah b. `Amr b. al-`As for one, used to write down what he heard from his Master. Other Companions too put their collections of Hadith into writing later in life, particularly Abu Hurayrah and `Abdullah b. `Abbas, two very important sources of Hadith. But in general it can be said that Hadiths were only partially and privately recorded in writing in the early stages.
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    WHY?

    The reasons for this are quite clear and there is nothing mysterious about them. The Arabs' antipathy to writing in this period is well-known, very few of were literate. Huge stores of knowledge of genealogy and poetry preserved in their prodigious memories; some people being able to recite a hundred thousand verses. There were no books in currency among them; even during the Prophet's lifetime the Qur'an did not circulate in book form. The fact that the Prophet's sayings, legal decisions and deeds, were not generally written down is therefore not surprising in the least. There is also evidence that the Prophet disapproved of the general writing of Hadith in his lifetime for fear that they would become mixed up with the Qur'an, which had not yet been fully revealed, and with which the Muslims had yet to become completely familiar. But this is not to say that he disapproved of memorising of, or acting upon Hadith; on the contrary, he insisted on it. The more learned of the Companions, including the Khulafa' al-Rdshidun, spent their time in absorbing thoroughly the explanations, applications, and developments of the Qur'an by the Prophet in addition to their study of the Qur'an itself.
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    When the Prophet had passed away from this world and the age of the Caliphs came, after some deliberation they also came to the conclusion that the written recording of Hadiths and publishing them in a book form was inexpedient at this stage, for the same reasons as in the Prophet's lifetime, that the Word of Allah must be learnt and studied and thoroughly absorbed first, while its practical application by the Prophet can be handed down by word of mouth and by personal example. But if we look at the life and the decisions of the Khulafa' al-Rashidun, we find that in every case where any matter had not been dealt with explicitly by the Qur'an, they considered it obligatory to discover what was the practice of the Prophet in this situation and made their decisions according to their findings. To contravene the practice of the Prophet on any vital matter was in their eyes equivalent to contravening Islam itself.
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    IHence, Allah preserved the Qur'an from being initially lost by the martyrdom of its memorisers, by guiding the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, endorsed by the consensus of the Messenger's Companions (may Allah bless him and grant him peace and may He be pleased with them), to compile the ayat (signs, miracles, 'verses') of the Qur'an into one volume, after these had been scattered in writing on various materials and in memory amongst many faithful hearts. He safeguarded it from corruption by its enemies: disbelievers, heretics, and false prophets, by enabling millions of believers to commit it to memory with ease. He protected its teachings by causing thousands of people of knowledge to learn from its deep treasures and convey them to the masses, and by sending renewers of His Din at the beginning of every century.

    Similarly, Allah preserved the Sunnah by enabling the Companions and those after them (may Allah be pleased with them) to memorise, write down and pass on the statements of the Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and the descriptions of his Way, as well as to continue the blessings of practising the Sunnah. Later, as the purity of the knowledge of the Sunnah became threatened, Allah caused the Muslim nation to produce outstanding individuals of incredible memory-skills and analytical expertise, who journeyed tirelessly to collect hundreds of thousands of narrations and distinguish the true words of precious wisdom of their Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) from those corrupted by weak memories, from forgeries by unscrupulous liars, and from the statements of the enormous number of ulama, the Companions and those who followed their way, who had taught in various centres of learning and helped to transmit the legacy of Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) - all of this achieved through precise attention to the words narrated and detailed familiarity with the biographies of the thousands of reporters of Hadith. Action being the best way to preserve teachings, the renewers of Islam also revived the practice of the blessed authentic Sunnah.
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    Mustalah al-Hadith

    Mustalah books speak of a number of classes of hadith in accordance with their status. The following broad classifications can be made, each of which is explained in the later sections:

    According to the reference to a particular authority, e.g. the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), a Companion, or a Successor; such ahadith are called marfu' (elevated), mawquf (stopped) and maqtu' (severed) respectively.

    According to the links in the isnad, i.e. whether the chain of reporters is interrupted or uninterrupted, e.g. musnad (supported), muttasil (continuous), munqati' (broken), mu'allaq (hanging), mu'dal (perplexing) and mursal (hurried).

    According to the number of reporters involved in each stage of the isnad, e.g. mutawatir (consecutive) and ahad (isolated), the latter being divided into gharib (scarce, strange), 'aziz (rare, strong), and mashhur (famous).

    According to the manner in which the hadith has been reported, such as using the words 'an ("on the authority of"), haddathana ("he narrated to us"), akhbarana ("he informed us") or sami'tu ("I heard"). In this category falls the discussion about mudallas (concealed) and musalsal (uniformly-linked) ahadith.

    [Note: In the quotation of isnad in the remainder of this book, the first mode of narration mentioned above will be represented with a single broken line thus: --. The three remaining modes of narration mentioned above, which all strongly indicate a clear, direct transmission of the hadith, are represented by a double line thus: ===]

    According to the nature of the matn and isnad, e.g. an addition by a reliable reporter, known as ziyadatu thiqah, or opposition by a lesser authority to a more reliableone, known as shadhdh (irregular). In some cases, a text containing a vulgar expression, unreasonable remark or obviously-erroneous statement is rejected by the traditionists outright without consideration of the isnad: such a hadith is known as munkar (denounced). If an expression or statement is proved to be an addition by a reporter to the text, it is declared as mudraj (interpolated).

    According to a hidden defect found in the isnad or text of a hadith. Although this could be included in some of the previous categories, a hadith mu'allal (defective hadith) is worthy to be explained separately. The defect can be caused in many ways; e.g. two types of hadith mu'allal are known as maqlub (overturned) and mudtarib (shaky).

    According to the reliability and memory of the reporters; the final judgment on a hadith depends crucially on this factor: verdicts such as sahih (sound), hasan (good), da'if (weak) and maudu' (fabricated, forged) rest mainly upon the nature of the reporters in the isnad.
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    No, sister. Not similarly. Why don't we accept the truth. In that regard, Qur'an has no equivalent. No book have the status of Qur'an which is free from errors.

    Qur'an is the authority over all books, hadiths, sunnah, narrations etc. Otherwise, we are lost. Even the simpliest narrations have different versions which leads to different rulings.
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    Yes, brother there is a very big gap between the words of the creator and words of the creature . Nothing is like Quran. I agree. Nothing is like Allah most Glorified and his words.
    We love, respect and obey the prophet( saw) because He was chosen by Allah and lead us to Allah most glorified .
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    Assalamu alaikum
    Sister Pure-heart, you cannot be blamed for spreading the notion, that Hadith explains Quran, because the earliest known tafaasir were written according to this notion, Tabari and Ibn Kathir being the two well known examples. With this post, I want you to explain, that Quran's standpoint on this issue is different. It should be other way round: Quran explains Hadith

    Before going into further details, I want to clarify, that I do not belong to the group of people, for whom Hadith and Sunnah are Synonyms. We have got Sunnah from Ijma' and Tawatur of muslims of all generations reaching to the Prophet. Also, we have got Quran from Ijma' and Tawatur of muslims of all generations reaching to the Prophet. So for me, there is no difference in reliability as far as Quran and Sunnah is concerned.

    However, things are different with Hadith. It's a human effort to save the words of the Prophet and to purify them from any falsehoods. No matter how sincere this effort was, it cannot remain without error.

    I do not have time to quote you the exact references from Quran but following hints from Quran may help you understand this standpoint:

    1. Quran is in pure Arabic (of Umm ul Qura Makkah), so that we can clearly understand it
    2. Quran's language is clear and without confusions

    3. Quran is Meezan and Furqaan. How can Quran be Meezan and Furqan if books foreign to itself fix its meaning?

    (By the above three points, we can conclude, that Quran's words, which are in the pure arabic of the pre-islamic makkah, fix its meaning)

    4. Quran is Guardian (In Quran's own words: Muhaiman) over all other scriptures.

    5. All verses of Quran are in the context of eachother. Numerous examples may be given, where the narrator has missed the real context of the words of the prophet.

    Finally, you may ask, if Quran and Sunnah are both known and we have got them from Ijma' and Tawatur, what are Ahadith good for? They are a record of Prophet's life. They verify deen, known to us from Quran and Sunnah. If they differ from Quran and Sunnah, we will not take them. If they add something to Quran and Sunnah, then taking that as deen would mean, we are saying, the prophet had given a part of deen to just a couple of people and left them on their will to give it further or not to give it further. No, how can we believe that. The prophet has done his job well. He has given us deen in the form of Quran and Sunnah and it is all known to us and there is no doubt in that.

    I hope, it will give you some material for further deliberation.

    Wassalamu alaikum
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    Wa alaikim alsalam brother:
    Do you agree with what a Schollar wrote concerning Sunnna and Hadith:

    ((“Hadeeth” refers to every incident that is attributed to the Prophet (peace be upon him), even if he only did it once in his life, and even if it was narrated from him by only one person. With regard to the word “Sunnah,” in reality it is used of his actions – I mean how the Messenger (peace be upon him) did things – that has been transmitted to us via mutawaatir actions, in the sense that the Prophet (peace be upon him) did it, then the Sahaabah did it after him, then the Taabi‘een did it after them, and so on. It does not necessarily mean that there is a narration describing that action; rather this refers to the way in which a particular act was performed and was passed down through the generations by means of tawaatur (i.e., passed down by so many to so many that it is inconceivable that they could have all agreed upon a lie). This is what is called “Sunnah,” and this is mentioned alongside the Book (the Qur’an) in the hadeeth in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “I am leaving among you two things and you will never go astray so long as you adhere to them: The Book of Allah, may He be exalted, and the Sunnah of His Messenger.” This is what it is not permissible for any Muslim, no matter who he is, to forsake or go against, otherwise he has no share in Islam. End quote. ))
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    Is Hadith mutawater Sunna?
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    Please read the following :
    ((

    The Prophet's companions were taught to seek their understanding of the Quran first from the Quran itself, then from the explanations of the Prophet and from their own intimate understanding of the language of the Quran. After the Prophet’s death, those who entered Islam as new converts depended first on the Quran to explain itself, then they depended on the Companions to explain the Quran to them. The Companions would inform their students among the Taabi'een (second generation) of the circumstances in which the verses were revealed, the interpretations given by the Prophet’s statements and actions. Finally, they would explain the meanings of some words which may not have been familiar or which may have had a different meaning to Arabs outside of the Arabian Peninsula.

    With the passing of era of the Companions, the scholars among the Taabi'een shouldered the grave responsibility of conveying the original meanings of the Quran to the next generation of Muslims exactly as they had received it. It was this next generation which began the process of gathering and recording the various narrations of Tafseer from the Taabi'een.

    From the above mentioned methodology of the Prophet and his companions, and of the early generations of Muslim scholars which followed them, the following points have been deduced by scholars as being the correct steps for making correct Tafseer of the Quran.

    Tafseer of the Quran by the Quran Itself:

    There are many places in the Quran where questions are asked and subsequently answered in order to catch the attention of the reader and to increase the impact of the concept mentioned. In other places, general statements are made and then later explained in order to vary the modes of presentation and encourage readers and listeners to reflect more. This self-explanatory process is referred to as Tafseer of the Quran by the Quran. Allah chose to clarify what He intended by revealing other explanatory verses. For example Allah asks (what means): “By the Sky and the night comer. And what will make you know what the night comer is?” [Quran 86: 1-2] Then He, the Most Exalted, answers His question in the next verse (which means): “It is the piercing star).” [Quran 86:3] Allah also states in the Quran (what means): “Beasts which are herded have been made Halaal (allowable) for you except those which will be recited to you.” [Quran 5:1]

    Shortly afterwards, He explains (what means): “The dead animal, blood, pork, animals sacrificed for other than Allah, animals strangled to death, killed by a blow or by falling from a height, killed by goring or partially eaten by wild animals are forbidden to you.” [Quran 5: 3]

    Another example can be seen in the verse in which Allah Almighty describes Himself Saying (what means), “No vision can grasp Him…” [Quran 6:103] This verse implies that Allah can not be seen. However, Allah later describes the believers in the next life as (what means): “Gazing at their Lord.” [Quran 75:23] and disbelievers as (what means): “Verily, they will be veiled from their Lord on that day.” [Quran 83:15]

    Hence, before any explanation or interpretation may be sought, the Quran must be relied upon to explain itself, for Allah knows best what He intended.

    Tafseer of the Quran by the Sunnah

    On many occasions, the Prophet added further clarification to various verses of the Quran. Allah had entrusted the task of explaining the Quran to the Prophet . This trust was expressed in the verse (which means): “Verily, We have revealed the Reminder (Quran) to you (O Muhammad) so you may explain to the people what has been revealed to them.” [Quran 16:44] And the verse (which means): “We have only revealed the book to you (O Muhammad) in order that you clarify for them the things about which they differ.” [Quran 16:64]

    The Companions understood this clearly and always turned to the Prophet for clarification whenever they were in doubt about the meaning of any of the Quranic passages. In fact, most of the fine details of prayer, almsgiving, pilgrimage, and inheritance laws, etc. were explained either by the Prophet’s statements or practical demonstration and applications (the practical Sunnah). Thus, the Prophet’s explanations of the Quranic passages are referred to as the Tafseer of the Quran by the Sunnah.

    For example, the Prophet explained the word "Al Kawthar" in the verse (which means): “Verily, We have given you Al Kawthar” as a river in paradise which Allah has given him. [Al Bukhari] Because the Sunnah was based on guidance from Allah, it represents the second part of Allah’s promise to explain the Quran, as He Says (what means): “…Then verily, We will explain it.” [Quran 75:19] Consequently, no other human interpretation can be given precedence over of the Prophet . By Dr Bilal .))

    This is the way I study tafseer , I find it very true and logical otherwise I would depend on oppinians of people not the prophet saw.

    This argument does not make Sunna superior to Quran No( I ask Allah for forgiveness ). No word is superior to the words of Allah but we should consult the one whom was revealed to to understand more, not our minds or other schollars. We return to the pure source, keeping in mind there are weak hadiths and other unreliable ones.
    Wa asalam
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  16. saif
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    Assalamu alaikum
    This post very aptly describes the definitions of Hadith and Sunnah, how I also understand them. However, in your last post you have used the Sunnah again for Ahadith. Sunnah is deen and it was trasfered to Sahabah so reliably, that it was present all over, long before anybody thought of collecting ahadith. Since that time, we are getting Sunnah by Ijma' and tawatur of Ummah and not by ahadith.

    Example: Muslims say Assalamu alaikum on meeting eachother. It has been so well known as a Sunnah, that it has never ever been dependent on a certain narration of the Prophet to one or to many Sahabah. Of course, all ahadith verify the same. But they are not our source of this sunnah.
    Wassalamu alaikum
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    Assalamu alaikum
    This post very aptly describes the definitions of Hadith and Sunnah, how I also understand them. However, in your last post you have used the Sunnah again for Ahadith. Sunnah is deen and it was trasfered to Sahabah so reliably, that it was present all over, long before anybody thought of collecting ahadith. Since that time, we are getting Sunnah by Ijma' and tawatur of Ummah and not by ahadith.

    Example: Muslims say Assalamu alaikum on meeting eachother. It has been so well known as a Sunnah, that it has never ever been dependent on a certain narration of the Prophet to one or to many Sahabah. Of course, all ahadith verify the same. But they are not our source of this sunnah.
    Wassalamu alaikum
  18. saif
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    This is a very good question. When we say Sunnah is always transfered by Ijma' and tawatur, then we mean by that, that the people acting upon that sunnah cannot be counted. Ahadith by definition are Akhbaar al ahaad. There is hardly any hadith which can be considered mutawater in all generations reaching to the Prophet. What differentiates them from Sunnah is the countability of their narrators.

    The countability of the narrators imply, that you have to have a certain minimum number of narrators in all generations to be considered as mutawater. Now let us consider, that a scholar says, that number has to be 10. Another may disagree and say, no it has to be 20 or 50.. You see, we will be depending on the opinions of the scholars to consider a hadith mutawater and that number, which is decisive to consider a hadith as sunnah is not given by Allah and not told by the Prophet. That makes the definition vague. And Sunnah is deen and deen cannot be vague.

    So ahadith are akhbar al ahaad, which is a technical term pointing on the countability of the narrators and it does not mean, that only one sahabi was narrating.
  19. saif
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    Assalamu alaikum
    That the Prophet has the sole right to interpret Quran is without any doubt. If something can be reliably attributed to the Prophet, then it becomes binding on all muslims because on this earth, the Prophet is the only source of deen.

    Like I said earlier, Sunnah in this post of yours is again synonym of hadith, which is not conform to your 3rd last post.

    Now let me give you a challenge. Please collect for me all ahadith, where the Prophet is actually explaining a certain verse of Quran and from the text of hadith you can establish, he is explaining this very verse. I will be surprised, if you can get more than a few in the whole collection of ahadith available to us. Mostly, the scholars like Tabari and ibn Kathir think, that this or that hadith is explaining this or that verse. Sometimes it looks like they were offering the thesaurus of ahadith for the coming generations to deliberate upon.

    The rest of the text is the history of how certain schools of tafasir came into being. The historical understanding of the methodology of tafsir may be right or wrong. I would rather stick to the arguments, which Quran itself provides.

    Wassalamu alaikum
  20. Pure-heart
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    Assalamu alaikim brother:
    I studied teachings of Islam dependening on Quran , tafsir, books of Hadith, seera......fiqh...........AlhamduliAllah I believe I have a good understanding now. Reading Quran without tafsir doesn't give me the clear picture. I am not expert in Arabic , or history...........I didn't live with the prophet saw and companions . The blessed efforts of scholars of Islam ( with their differences in some details ) make me feel enjoy the beautiful spirit of Islam and the high status of our prophet , they brought me near to that blessed era . I understand the differences , it is natural . But the main message is one.
    Can you direct me where can I find the Sunna which you are talking about ?? What other sources should I study to have a good understanding ????
    I think that Ibn Katheer and other schollars had the tools ( memory , language , teachers, strong Iman ) which made them reliable though not perfect.
    Wa alsalam
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    How can I with my bare mind understand ??

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